The Magna Carta

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15 June 1215

Language

The Original Latin English, True to the Original Latin English, Written to Convey the Meaning Español Français Italiano

Translation

In the charter itself, the clauses are not numbered, and the text reads continuously.  Here, it has been split into sections for convenience. This is the translation most often found online.  It aims to translate the original Latin precisely. This translation sets out to convey the sense rather than the precise wording of the original Latin.  It has been provided by The British Library Board.  Visit their website here. This appears to be a translation of the second English translation, rather than a direct translation from the original Latin. Texte tiré de trois différentes traductions du latin à l’anglais médiéval.  Traduction de l’anglais par Claude J. Violette.  Texte français reproduit avec l’aimable autorisation de l’auteur.

Audio

Click here to listen to the Magna Carta in .mp3 format.  This audio recording is read by Jim Mowatt, and provided for free by LibriVox.

Title

Magna Carta Great Charter Great Charter Carta Magna Grande Charte Magna Charta

MC.Preamble

Johannes del gracia rex Anglie, dominus Hibernie, dux Normannie, Aquitannie et comes Andegravie, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, comitibus, baronibus, justiciariis, forestariis, vicecomitibus, prepositis, ministris et omnibus ballivis et fidelibus suis salutem. John, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to the archbishop, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciaries, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his bailiffs and liege subjects, greetings. JOHN, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his officials and loyal subjects, Greeting. Juan, por la gracia de Dios Rey de Inglaterra, Lord de Irlanda, Duque de Normandía y Aquitania y Conde de Anjou, a sus arzobispos, obispos, abades, condes, barones, jueces, gobernadores forestales, corregidores, mayordomos y a todos sus bailios y vasallos, salud. Jean, par la grâce de Dieu, Roi d’Angleterre, Seigneur d’Irlande, Duc de Normandie et d’Aquitaine et Comte d’Anjou, aux Archevêques, Evêques, Abbés, Comtes, Barons, Juges, Forestiers, Shérifs, Prévôts, ministres et à tous ses Huissiers et fidèles sujets.  Salutations. Giovanni, per grazia di Dio re d’Inghilterra, signore d’Irlanda, duca di Normandia ed Aquitania, conte d’Angiò, saluta gli arcivescovi, i vescovi, gli abati, i conti, i baroni, i giudici, le guardie forestali, gli sceriffi, gli intendenti, i servi e tutti i suoi balivi e leali sudditi.
Sciatis nos intuitu Dei et pro salute anime nostre et omnium antecessorum et heredum nostrorum ad honorem Dei et exaltacionem sancte Ecclesie, et emendacionem regni nostri, per consilium venerabilium patrum nostrorum, Stephani Cantuariensis archiepsicopi, tocius Anglie primatis et sancte Romane ecclesie cardinalis, Henrici Dublinensis archiepiscopi, Willelmi Londoniensis, Petri Wintoniensis, Joscelini Bathoniensis et Glastoniensis, Hugonis Lincolniensis, Walteri Wygorniensis, Willelmi Coventriensis, et Benedicti Roffensis, episcoporum; magistri Pandulfi domini pape subdiaconi et familiaris, fratris Aymerici magistri milicie Templi in Anglia; et nobilium virorum Willelmi Mariscalli comitis Penbrocie, Willelmi comitis Sarrisberie, Willelmi comitis Warennie, Willelmi comitis Arundellie, Alani de Galewey constabularii Scocie, Warini filii Geroldi, Petri filii Hereberti, Huberti de Burgo senescalli Pictavie, Hugonis de Nevilla, Mathei filii Hereberti, Thome Basset, Alani Basset, Philippi de Albiniaco, Roberti de Roppel’, Johannis Mariscalli, Johannis filii Hugonis et aliorum fidelium nostrum. Know that, having regard to God and for the salvation of our soul, and those of all our ancestors and heirs, and unto the honour of God and the advancement of his holy Church and for the rectifying of our realm, we have granted as underwritten by advice of our venerable fathers, Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry, archbishop of Dublin, William of London, Peter of Winchester, Jocelyn of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh of Lincoln, Walter of Worcester, William of Coventry, Benedict of Rochester, bishops; of Master Pandulf, subdeacon and member of the household of our lord the Pope, of brother Aymeric (master of the Knights of the Temple in England), and of the illustrious men William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, William, earl of Salisbury, William, earl of Warenne, William, earl of Arundel, Alan of Galloway (constable of Scotland), Waren Fitz Gerold, Peter Fitz Herbert, Hubert De Burgh (seneschal of Poitou), Hugh de Neville, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip d’Aubigny, Robert of Roppesley, John Marshal, John Fitz Hugh, and others, our liegemen. KNOW THAT BEFORE GOD, for the health of our soul and those of our ancestors and heirs, to the honour of God, the exaltation of the holy Church, and the better ordering of our kingdom, at the advice of our reverend fathers Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry archbishop of Dublin, William bishop of London, Peter bishop of Winchester, Jocelin bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh bishop of Lincoln, Walter Bishop of Worcester, William bishop of Coventry, Benedict bishop of Rochester, Master Pandulf subdeacon and member of the papal household, Brother Aymeric master of the knighthood of the Temple in England, William Marshal earl of Pembroke, William earl of Salisbury, William earl of Warren, William earl of Arundel, Alan de Galloway constable of Scotland, Warin Fitz Gerald, Peter Fitz Herbert, Hubert de Burgh seneschal of Poitou, Hugh de Neville, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip Daubeny, Robert de Roppeley, John Marshal, John Fitz Hugh, and other loyal subjects: Todos que ante Dios, para bien de nuestra alma y de la de nuestros antepasados y herederos, en loor a Dios y para mayor gloria de la Santa Iglesia, y la mejor ordenación de nuestro Reino, por consejo de nuestros reverendos padres Esteban, arzobispo de Canterbury, primado de toda Inglaterra y cardenal de la Santa Iglesia Romana; Enrique, arzobispo de Dublin; Guillermo, obispo de Londres; Pedro, obispo de Winchester; Jocelino, obispo de Bath y Glastonbury; Hugo, obispo de Lincoln; Walter, obispo de Coventry; Benedicto, obispo de Rochester; Maestro Pandolfo, subdiácono y miembro de la casa papal; Hermano Aimerico, maestre de los caballeros templarios en Inglaterra; Guillermo Marshall, conde de Pembroke; Guillermo, conde de Salisbury; Guillermo, conde de Warren; Guillermo, conde de Arundel; Alan de Galloway, condestable de Escocia; Warin Fitz Gerald; Pedro Fitz Herbert; Huberto de Burgh, senescal del Poitou; Hugo de Neville; Mateo Fitz Herbert; Tomas Basset; Alan Basset; Felipe Daubeny; Roberto de Roppeley; Juan Marshall; Juan Fitz Hugh y otros leales vasallos: Sachez que sous l’inspiration de Dieu, pour le salut de notre âme et de celle de tous nos ancêtres et de nos héritiers, pour l’honneur de Dieu et l’exaltation de la Sainte Eglise, et pour la réforme de Notre Royaume, avec le conseil de nos vénérables pères : Stephen, Archevêque de Canterbury, primat d’Angleterre et cardinal de la Sainte Eglise Romaine, Henry, Archevêque de Dublin, William de Londres, Peter de Winchester, Jocelyne de Bath et Glastonbury, Hugh de Lincoln, Walter de Worcester, William de Coventry, Benedict de Rochester, Evêques ; Maître Pandulph, familier et sous-diacre de Notre Seigneur le Pape, Frère Alméric, Maître des Templiers en Angleterre, et les nobles personnes : William Mareschal Earl de Pembroke, William Earl de Salisbury, William Earl de Warren, William Earl d’Arundel, Alan de Galloway Prévôt de Scotland, Warin Fitz Herbert, Hugh de Nevil, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip d’Albiniac, Robert de Roppel, John Mareschal, John Fitz Hugh, et autres de Nos fidèles serviteurs; Nous avons d’abord accordé à Dieu et par cette présente Charte Nous avons confirmé, pour Nous et pour nos héritiers, à perpétuité; Sappiate che noi, di fronte a Dio, per la salvezza della nostra anima e di quella dei nostri predecessori e successori, per l’esaltazione della santa Chiesa e per un miglior ordinamento del nostro regno, dietro consiglio dei nostri venerabili padri Stefano, arcivescovo di Canterbury, primate d’Inghilterra e cardinale della santa romana Chiesa, Enrico, arcivescovo di Dublino, Guglielmo di Londra, Pietro di Winchester, Jocelin di Bath e Glastonbury, Ugo di Lincoln, Gualtiero di Coventry, Benedetto di Rochester, vescovi; di maestro Pandolfo, suddiacono e membro della corte papale, fratello Aymerico, maestro dei cavalieri del Tempio in Inghilterra e dei nobiluomini William Marshal, conte di Pembroke, William conte di Salisbury, William conte di Warennie, William conte di Arundel, Alan di Galloway, connestabile di Scozia, Warin figlio di Gherardo, Peter (figlio di Herbert, Hubert de Burg siniscalco del Poitou, Hug de Neville, Mattew figlio di Herbert, Thonas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip d’Aubigny, Robert de Ropsley, John Marshal, John figlio di Hug ed altri fedeli sudditi:

MC.1

In primis concessisse Deo et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse, pro nobis et heredibus nostris in perpetuum, quod Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, et habeat jura sua integra, et libertates suas illesas; et ita volumus observari; quod apparet ex eo quod libertatem electionum, que maxima et magis necessaria reputatur ecclesie Anglicane, mera et spontanea voluntate, ante discordiam inter nos et barones nostros motam, concessimus et carta nostra confirmavimus, et eam obtinuimus a domino papa Innocentio tercio confirmari; quam et nos observabimus et ab heredibus nostris in perpetuum bona fide volumus observari. In the first place we have granted to God, and by this our present charter confirmed for us and our heirs forever that the English Church shall be free, and shall have her rights entire, and her liberties inviolate; and we will that it be thus observed; which is apparent from this that the freedom of elections, which is reckoned most important and very essential to the English Church, we, of our pure and unconstrained will, did grant, and did by our charter confirm and did obtain the ratification of the same from our lord, Pope Innocent III, before the quarrel arose between us and our barons: and this we will observe, and our will is that it be observed in good faith by our heirs forever. FIRST, THAT WE HAVE GRANTED TO GOD, and by this present charter have confirmed for us and our heirs in perpetuity, that the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired.  That we wish this so to be observed, appears from the fact that of our own free will, before the outbreak of the present dispute between us and our barons, we granted and confirmed by charter the freedom of the Church’s elections—a right reckoned to be of the greatest necessity and importance to it—and caused this to be confirmed by Pope Innocent III.  This freedom we shall observe ourselves, and desire to be observed in good faith by our heirs in perpetuity. Primero, que hemos otorgado en el nombre de Dios, y por la presente Carta hemos confirmado para Nos y nuestros herederos a perpetuidad que la Iglesia inglesa sea libre, conserve todos sus derechos y no vea menoscabadas sus libertades.  Que así queremos que sea observado resulta del hecho de que por nuestra libre voluntad, antes de surgir la actual disputa entre Nos y Nuestros barones, concedimos y confirmamos por carta la libertad de las elecciones eclesiásticas (un derecho que se reputa como el de mayor necesidad e importancia para la Iglesia) y la hicimos confirmar por el Papa Inocencio III.  Esta libertad es la que Nos mismos observaremos y la que deseamos sea observada de buena fe por nuestros herederos para siempre jamás. Que l’Eglise d’Angleterre sera libre et jouira de tous ses droits et libertés, sans qu’on puisse les amoindrir; et Nous voulons qu’il soit constaté, qu’il est évident en vertu de cette charte, que la liberté des élections, que nous avons accordés et confirmés, sont ce qui était reconnu comme étant le plus grand besoin de l’Eglise d’Angleterre et pour ce quoi, Nous voulons qu’il soit confirmé, par cette Charte, que Nous avons accordé de Notre libre volonté, ladite Charte, et que Nous l’observerons et que Nous voulons qu’elle soit observée de bonne foi par nos héritiers à perpétuité. In primo luogo abbiamo accordato a Dio e confermato con questa carta, per noi e i nostri eredi in perpetuo, che la Chiesa d’Inghilterra sia libera, abbia integri i suoi diritti e le sue libertà non lese; e vogliamo che ciò sia osservato; come appare evidente dal fatto che per nostra chiara e libera volontà, prima che nascesse la discordia tra noi ed i baroni, abbiamo, di nostra libera volontà, concesso e confermato con la nostra carta la libertà delle elezioni, considerata della più grande importanza per la Chiesa anglicana ed abbiamo inoltre ottenuto che ciò fosse confermato da Papa Innocenzo III; la qual cosa noi osserveremo e vogliamo che i nostri eredi osservino in buona fede e per sempre.
Concessimus eciam omnibus liberis hominibus regni nostri, pro nobis et heredibus nostri in perpetuum, omnes libertates subscriptas, habendas et tenendas eis et heredibus suis, de nobis et heredibus nostris. We have also granted to all freemen of our kingdom, for us and our heirs forever, all the underwritten liberties, to be had and held by them and their heirs, of us and our heirs forever. TO ALL FREE MEN OF OUR KINGDOM we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs: A todos los hombres libres de nuestro reino hemos otorgado asimismo, para Nos y para nuestros herederos a titulo perpetuo, todas las libertades que a continuación se enuncian, para que las tengan y posean de Nos y de nuestros herederos para ellos y los suyos: Nous avons aussi accordé à tous les hommes libres de Notre royaume, pour Nous et pour nos héritiers à perpétuité, toutes les libertés inscrites ci-dessous pour leurs bénéfice et pour qu’ils les conservent pour eux et leurs héritiers, de Nous et de nos héritiers. Abbiamo concesso a tutti gli uomini liberi del regno, per noi e i nostri eredi tutte le libertà sottoscritte, che essi e i loro eredi ricevano e conservino da noi e dai nostri eredi.

MC.2

Si quis comitum vel baronum nostrorum, sive aliorum tenencium de nobis in capite per servicium militare, mortuus fuerit, et cum decesserit heres suus plene etatis fuerit et relevium debeat, habeat hereditatem suam per antiquum relevium; scilicet heres vel heredes comitis de baronia comitis integra per centum libras; heres vel heredes baronis de baronia integra per centum libras; heres vel heredes militis de feodo militis integro per centum solidos ad plus; et qui minus debuerit minus det secundum antiquam consuetudinem feodorum. If any of our earls or barons, or others holding of us in chief by military service shall have died, and at the time of his death his heir shall be full of age and owe “relief”, he shall have his inheritance by the old relief, to wit, the heir or heirs of an earl, for the whole baroncy of an earl by 100; the heir or heirs of a baron, 100 for a whole barony; the heir or heirs of a knight, 100 shillings, at most, and whoever owes less let him give less, according to the ancient custom of fees. If any earl, baron, or other person that holds lands directly of the Crown, for military service, shall die, and at his death his heir shall be of full age and owe a ‘relief’, the heir shall have his inheritance on payment of the ancient scale of ‘relief’.  That is to say, the heir or heirs of an earl shall pay 100 for the entire earl’s barony, the heir or heirs of a knight 100 shillings at most for the entire knight’s ‘fee’, and any man that owes less shall pay less, in accordance with the ancient usage of ‘fees.’ Si fallece algún conde, bar“n u otra persona que posea tierras directamente de la Corona, con destino al servicio militar, y a su muerte el heredero fuese mayor de edad y debiera un “censo”, dicho heredero entrara en posesión de la herencia al pagar la antigua tarifa del “censo”, es decir, el o los herederos de un conde pagaran 100 (cien) libras por toda la baronía del conde, los herederos de un caballero 100 (cien) chelines como máximo por todo el “feudo” del caballero, y cualquier hombre que deba menor cantidad pagara menos, con arreglo a la usanza antigua de los “feudos”. Si certains de nos Comtes ou Barons ou autres qui Nous doivent le service militaire, devaient décéder, et qu’au moment de leurs morts leurs héritiers sont d’âge majeur et qu’ils nous doivent une compensation, ils auront leurs héritages d’après l’ancienne compensation.  C’est-à-dire, l’héritier ou les héritiers d’un Comte, tout un Comté pour cent livres; l’héritier ou les héritiers d’un Baron, tout un Baronet pour cent livres ; pour l’héritier ou les héritiers d’un Chevalier pas plus que cent shillings pour tout le fief, et ceux qui en ont moins en donnerons moins, d’après l’ancienne coutume des fiefs. Venendo a morte alcuno dei nostri conti o baroni o altri vassalli con obbligo nei nostri confronti di servizio di militare e alla sua morte l’erede sia maggiorenne e debba pagare il, potr† avere la sua eredità solo su pagamento del.  Vale a dire che l’erede o gli eredi di un conte o di un barone pagheranno cento sterline per l’intera baronìa; l’erede o gli eredi di un cavaliere al massimo cento scellini per l’intero feudo; e chi deve di meno pagher† di meno, secondo l’antico uso dei feudi.

MC.3

Si autem heres alicujus talium fuerit infra etatem et fuerit in custodia, cum ad etatem pervenerit, habeat hereditatem suam sine relevio et sine fine. If, however, the heir of any one of the aforesaid has been under age and in wardship, let him have his inheritance without relief and without fine when he comes of age. But if the heir of such a person is under age and a ward, when he comes of age he shall have his inheritance without ‘relief’ or fine. Pero si el heredero de esa persona fuese menor de edad y estuviese bajo tutela, cuando alcance la mayoría de edad entrara en posesión de su herencia sin tener que pagar “censo” o derecho real. Mais si l’héritier est d’âge mineur, et qu’il est sous tutelle, il aura son héritage, quand il aura atteint sa maturité, sans compensation ou amende. Se l’erede di costoro è un minorenne sotto tutela, quando raggiungerà la maggior età, abbia l’eredità senza pagare riscatto.

MC.4

Custos terre hujusmodi heredis qui infra etatem fuerit, non capiat de terra heredis nisi racionabiles exitus, et racionabiles consuetudines, et racionabilia servicia, et hoc sine destructione et vasto hominum vel rerum; et si nos commiserimus custodiam alicujus talis terre vicecomiti vel alicui alii qui de exitibus illius nobis respondere debeat, et ille destructionem de custodia fecerit veI vastum, nos ab illo capiemus emendam, et terra committatur duobus legalibus et discretis hominibus de feodo illo, qui de exitibus respondeant nobis vel ei cui eos assignaverimus; et si dederimus vel vendiderimus alicui custodiam alicujus talis terre, et ille destructionem inde fecerit vel vastum, amittat ipsam custodiam, et tradatur duobus legalibus et discretis hominibus de feodo illo qui similiter nobis respondeant sicut predictum est. The guardian of the land of an heir who is thus under age, shall take from the land of the heir nothing but reasonable produce, reasonable customs, and reasonable services, and that without destruction or waste of men or goods; and if we have committed the wardship of the lands of any such minor to the sheriff, or to any other who is responsible to us for its issues, and he has made destruction or waster of what he holds in wardship, we will take of him amends, and the land shall be committed to two lawful and discreet men of that fee, who shall be responsible for the issues to us or to him to whom we shall assign them; and if we have given or sold the wardship of any such land to anyone and he has therein made destruction or waste, he shall lose that wardship, and it shall be transferred to two lawful and discreet men of that fief, who shall be responsible to us in like manner as aforesaid. The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues, customary dues, and feudal services.  He shall do this without destruction or damage to men or property.  If we have given the guardianship of the land to a sheriff, or to any person answerable to us for the revenues, and he commits destruction or damage, we will exact compensation from him, and the land shall be entrusted to two worthy and prudent men of the same ‘fee’, who shall be answerable to us for the revenues, or to the person to whom we have assigned them.  If we have given or sold to anyone the guardianship of such land, and he causes destruction or damage, he shall lose the guardianship of it, and it shall be handed over to two worthy and prudent men of the same ‘fee’, who shall be similarly answerable to us. Quien tenga a su cargo la tierra de un heredero menor de edad sólo sacará de ella frutos, las rentas usuales y servicios personales, debiéndolo hacer sin destrucción ni daño alguno a los hombres ni a los bienes.  En caso de que hayamos confiado la custodia de la tierra a un corregidor o a cualquier persona responsable ante Nos por el producto de aquella, y perpetrase una destrucción o daños, le exigiremos compensación y la tierra será encomendada a dos hombres dignos y prudentes del mismo feudo, que responderán ante Nos del producto o ante la persoría que les asignemos.  En caso de que hayamos conferido o vendido a alguien la custodia de esa tierra y de que esa persona cause destrucción o daños, perderá la custodia y el terreno será entregado a dos hombres dignos y prudentes del mismo “feudo”, que serán responsables de modo semejante ante Nos. Le gardien des terres d’un tel héritier qui est mineur, ne retirera des terres de l’héritier que des revenus, profits et compensations raisonnables, et ce sans outrage aux hommes et sans dommage ou gaspillage des biens.  Et si l’on donne la garde de ces terres à un shérif, ou à toute autre personne qui Nous est responsable pour les revenus de ces terres, et qu’il endommage ou gaspille les biens à sa charge, nous prendrons de lui des dommages compensatoires.  La garde de ces terres sera alors assignée à deux hommes honnêtes et loyaux, qui seront responsables à Nous, ou à celui que nous aurons assigné pour les revenus de ces terres.  Et si nous donnons ou vendons la garde de ces terres et que le gardien de ces terres y cause des dommages ou des pertes, il en perdra la garde, et celles-ci seront assignées à deux hommes honnêtes et loyaux, qui seront responsable à Nous tel que susdit. Il tutore delle terre di un erede minorenne non prenda da essa nulla di più di ragionevoli profitti, di ragionevoli tributi consuetudinari e ragionevoli servizi e ciò senza danni alla proprietà o spreco di uomini e mezzi; se avremo affidato la tutela della terra ad uno sceriffo o ad altra persona responsabile verso di noi per le rendite e questi avrà provocato detrimento o danno di ciò che gli è stato affidato, esigeremo un risarcimento da lui, e la terra sarà affidata a due uomini ligi e prudenti di quel feudo, che saranno responsabili per le rendite, verso di noi o nei confronti della persona alla quale l’avremo affidata; e se noi avremo dato o venduto ad alcuno l’amministrazione di tale terra ed egli ne avrà causato distruzione o danno, egli perderà la tutela della terra, che verrà consegnata a due uomini di legge equilibrati dello stesso feudo, che saranno similmente responsabili verso di noi, come è stato detto.

MC.5

Custos autem, quamdiu custodiam terre habuerit, sustentet domos, parcos, vivaria, stagna, molendina, et cetera ad terram illam pertinencia, de exitibus terre ejusdem; et reddat heredi cum ad plenam etatem pervenerit, terram suam totam instauratam de carucis et waynagiis, secundum quod tempus waynagii exiget et exitus terre racionabiliter poterunt sustinere. The guardian, moreover, so long as he has the wardship of the land, shall keep up the houses, parks, fishponds, stanks, mills, and other things pertaining to the land, out of the issues of the same land; and he shall restore to the heir, when he has come to full age, all his land, stocked with ploughs and wainage, according as the season of husbandry shall require, and the issues of the land can reasonable bear. For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself.  When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear. Mientras el tutor tenga la custodia de estas tierras, mantendrá las casas, sotos, cotos de pesca, estanques, molinos y demás pertenencias con cargo al producto de la propia tierra.

Cuando el heredero llegue a la mayoría de edad, el tutor le hará entrega de todo el predio, surtido con los arados y aperos que la estación requiera y acrecido en el producto que la tierra buenamente sea capaz de dar.

Mais, pendant que le gardien a la garde des terres d’un tel héritier, il gardera et maintiendra les maisons, les parcs, les réserves de chasse, les étangs, les moulins et les autres propriétés de ces terres, à partir de leurs revenus.  Lorsque l’héritier sera majeur, il lui donnera son domaine en entier, tel qu’il l’a reçu, avec les charrues et tous les accessoires agricoles nécessaires pour les récoltes, et que les revenus des terres peuvent raisonnablement financer. Per tutta la durata della tutela l’amministratore manterrà gli edifici, i parchi, i vivai, gli stagni, i mulini e ogni altra pertinenza, con i proventi derivanti dalla terra stessa; e renderà agli eredi, quando avranno raggiunto la maggiore età, l’intera proprietà fornita di aratri e carri, come la stagione agricola richiede e il prodotto della terra permette di sostenere.

MC.6

Heredes maritentur absque disparagacione, ita tamen quod, antequam contrahatur matrimonium, ostendatur propinquis de consanguinitate ipsius heredis. Heirs shall be married without disparagement, yet so that before the marriage takes place the nearest in blood to that heir shall have notice. Heirs may be given in marriage, but not to someone of lower social standing.  Before a marriage takes place, it shall be made known to the heir’s next-of-kin. Los herederos podrán ser dados en matrimonio, pero no a alguien de inferior rango social.  Antes de que se celebre el casamiento, se avisara a los parientes mas próximos del heredero. Les héritiers pourront se marier, sans aucune désobligeance, pourvu que la parenté par consanguinité en soit avisée avant le mariage. Gli eredi non siano dati in matrimonio a persone di ceto inferiore; prima che contraggano il matrimonio, esso deve essere reso noto ai loro parenti prossimi.

MC.7

Vidua post mortem mariti sui statim et sine difficultate habeat maritagium et hereditatem suam, nec aliquid det pro dote sua, vel pro maritagio suo, vel hereditate sua, quam hereditatem maritus suus et ipsa tenuerint die obitus ipsius mariti, et maneat in domo mariti sul per quadraginta dies post mortem ipsius, infra quos assignetur ei dos sua. A widow, after the death of her husband, shall forthwith and without difficulty have her marriage portion and inheritance; nor shall she give anything for her dower, or for her marriage portion, or for the inheritance which her husband and she held on the day of the death of that husband; and she may remain in the house of her husband for forty days after his death, within which time her dower shall be assigned to her. At her husband’s death, a widow may have her marriage portion and inheritance at once and without trouble.  She shall pay nothing for her dower, marriage portion, or any inheritance that she and her husband held jointly on the day of his death.  She may remain in her husband’s house for forty days after his death, and within this period her dower shall be assigned to her. A la muerte del marido toda viuda podrá entrar en posesión de su dote y de su cuota hereditaria inmediatamente y sin impedimento alguno.  No tendrá que pagar nada por su dote, por presentes matrimoniales o por cualquier herencia que su marido y ella poseyesen conjuntamente el día de la muerte de aquel, y podrá permanecer en la casa de su marido cuarenta días tras la muerte de este, asignándosele durante este plazo su dote. Suite à la mort de son mari, une veuve aura immédiatement et sans difficulté, son ménage et son héritage.  Elle ne donnera rien pour sa dot, le ménage, ou l’héritage, qu’elle et son mari possédaient le jour de son décès.  Elle pourra demeurer dans la maison de son mari, pendant quarante jours après sa mort, et, sa dot lui sera assignée pendant ce temps. Alla morte del marito, la vedova abbia la dote e la sua eredità subito e senza ostacoli, né pagherà nulla per la sua quota legittima o la sua dote e per qualsiasi altra eredità che essa ed il marito possedevano nel momento della morte di lui, e rimanga nella casa del marito per quaranta giorni dopo la sua morte, ed entro questo termine le dovrà essere assegnata la sua dote.

MC.8

Nulla vidua distringatur ad se maritandum, dum voluerit vivere sine marito, ita tamen quod securitatem faciat quod se non maritabit sine assensu nostro, si de nobis tenuerit, vel sine assensu domini sui de quo tenuerit, si de alio tenuerit. No widow shall be compelled to marry, so long as she prefers to live without a husband; provided always that she gives security not to marry without our consent, if she holds of us, or without the consent of the lord of whom she holds, if she holds of another. No widow shall be compelled to marry, so long as she wishes to remain without a husband.  But she must give security that she will not marry without royal consent, if she holds her lands of the Crown, or without the consent of whatever other lord she may hold them of. Ninguna viuda será obligada a casarse mientras desee permanecer sin marido.  Pero deberá dar seguridades de que no contraerá matrimonio sin el consentimiento regio, si posee sus tierras con cargo a la Corona, o sin el consentimiento del señor a quien se las deba. Aucune veuve ne sera obligée de se marier, si elle désire vivre sans mari.  Pourvu qu’elle Nous donne son garant de ne pas se marier sans Notre permission, si elle est responsable devant Nous, ni sans la permission de son Seigneur, si elle est responsable devant lui. Nessuna vedova sia costretta a risposarsi fino a quando vorrà rimanere senza marito, a condizione che dia assicurazione che non prenderà marito senza il nostro consenso se è nostra vassalla, o senza l’assenso del suo signore se è vassalla di un altro.

MC.9

Nec nos nec ballivi nostri seisiemus terram aliquam nec redditum pro debito aliquo, quamdiu catalla debitoris sufficiunt ad debitum reddendum; nec plegii ipsius debitoris distringantur quamdiu ipse capitalis debitor sufficit ad solucionem debiti; et si capitalis debitor defecerit in solucione debiti, non habens unde solvat, plegii respondeant de debito; et si voluerint, habeant terras et redditus debitoris, donec sit eis satisfactum de debito quod ante pro eo solverint, nisi capitalis debitor monstraverit se esse quietum inde versus eosdem plegios. Neither we nor our bailiffs will seize any land or rent for any debt, as long as the chattels of the debtor are sufficient to repay the debt; nor shall the sureties of the debtor be distrained so long as the principal debtor is able to satisfy the debt; and if the principal debtor shall fail to pay the debt, having nothing wherewith to pay it, then the sureties shall answer for the debt; and let them have the lands and rents of the debtor, if they desire them, until they are indemnified for the debt which they have paid for him, unless the principal debtor can show proof that he is discharged thereof as against the said sureties. Neither we nor our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt, so long as the debtor has movable goods sufficient to discharge the debt.  A debtor’s sureties shall not be distrained upon so long as the debtor himself can discharge his debt.  If, for lack of means, the debtor is unable to discharge his debt, his sureties shall be answerable for it.  If they so desire, they may have the debtor’s lands and rents until they have received satisfaction for the debt that they paid for him, unless the debtor can show that he has settled his obligations to them. Ni Nos ni nuestros bailios ocuparemos tierras ni rentas de la tierra en pago de deuda alguna, mientras el deudor tenga bienes muebles suficientes para satisfacer el debito.  Los fiadores del deudor no serán apremiados mientras el deudor mismo pueda pagar la deuda.  Si por falta de medios el deudor fuese incapaz de satisfacerla, saldrán responsables sus fiadores, quienes, si lo desean, podrán incautarse de las tierras y rentas del deudor hasta que obtengan el reembolso del debito que le hayan pagado, a menos que el deudor pueda probar que ha cumplido sus obligaciones frente a ellos. Ni Nous ni nos Huissiers ne saisirons aucune terre ou loyer pour une dette, si les biens du débiteur sont suffisants pour payer la dette, ou si le débiteur lui-même est en mesure de satisfaire la dette.  Le garant du débiteur ne sera pas saisis, si le principal débiteur est en mesure de payer la dette.  Si le débiteur principal n’a pas le nécessaire pour acquitter la dette, la dette sera alors payée par le garant.  Si le garant le désire, il prendra possession des terres et des loyers du débiteur, jusqu’a satisfaction de la dette, à moins que le débiteur lui-même puisse démontrer qu’il s’est acquitté envers le garant. Né noi né i nostri balivi ci impadroniremo di alcuna terra o di rendite di chiunque per debiti, finché i beni mobili del debitore saranno sufficienti a pagare il suo debito, né coloro che hanno garantito il pagamento subiscano danno, finché lo stesso non sarà in grado di pagarlo; e se il debitore non potrà pagare per mancanza di mezzi, i garanti risponderanno del debito e se questi lo vorranno, potranno soddisfarlo con le terre e il reddito del debitore fino a quando il debito non sarà stato assolto, a meno che il debitore non dimostri di aver già pagato i suoi garanti.

MC.10

Si quis mutuo ceperit aliquid a Judeis, plus vel minus, et moriatur antequam debitum illud solvatur, debitum non usuret quamdiu heres fuerit infra etatem, de quocumque teneat; et si debitum illud inciderit in manus nostras, nos non capiemus nisi catallum contentum in carta. If one who has borrowed from the Jews any sum, great or small, die before that loan be repaid, the debt shall not bear interest while the heir is under age, of whomsoever he may hold; and if the debt fall into our hands, we will not take anything except the principal sum contained in the bond. If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been repaid, his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age, irrespective of whom he holds his lands.  If such a debt falls into the hands of the Crown, it will take nothing except the principal sum specified in the bond.

Si alguien que haya tomado prestada una suma de dinero a judíos, muriese antes de haberse pagado la deuda, su heredero no pagara interés alguno sobre esta mientras sea menor de edad, sea quien fuere la persona a la que deba la posesión de sus tierras.

Si la deuda viniese a parar a manos de la Corona, esta no recabara mas que la suma principal indicada en el titulo.

Si quiconque a emprunté quoique ce soit aux Juifs, et qu’ il décède avant que la dette soit payé, la dette n’accumulera aucun intérêt pendant que les héritiers seront mineurs, indépendamment de qui est responsable pour eux ; et si cette dette Nous était due, Nous ne prendrons rien d’autre que les biens inscrits dans l’engagement. Se qualcuno ha preso a prestito una somma da Ebrei, sia grande o piccola, e muore prima di aver pagato il debito, questo non produrrà interesse fino a quando l’erede si troverà nella minore età, di chiunque egli sia vassallo; e se quel credito cade in nostre mani, noi non chiederemo null’altro, se non la somma specificata nel documento.

MC.11

Et si quis moriatur, et debitum debeat Judeis, uxor ejus habeat dotem suam, et nichil reddat de debito illo, et si liberi ipsius defuncti qui fuerint infra etatem remanserint, provideantur eis necessaria secundum tenementum quod fuerit defuncti et de residuo solvatur debitum, salvo servicio dominorum; simili modo fiat de debitis que debentur aliis quaim Judeis. And if anyone die indebted to the Jews, his wife shall have her dower and pay nothing of that debt; and if any children of the deceased are left under age, necessaries shall be provided for them in keeping with the holding of the deceased; and out of the residue the debt shall be paid, reserving, however, service due to feudal lords; in like manner let it be done touching debts due to others than Jews. If a man dies owing money to Jews, his wife may have her dower and pay nothing towards the debt from it.  If he leaves children that are under age, their needs may also be provided for on a scale appropriate to the size of his holding of lands.  The debt is to be paid out of the residue, reserving the service due to his feudal lords.  Debts owed to persons other than Jews are to be dealt with similarly. Si un hombre muere debiendo dinero a judíos, su mujer podrá entrar en posesión de la dote y no estará obligada a pagar cantidad alguna de la deuda con cargo a aquella.  Si deja hijos menores de edad, se podrá proveer a su sustento en una medida adecuada al tamaño de la tierra poseída por el difunto.  La deuda deberá ser satisfecha con cargo al remanente, después de ser reservado el tributo debido a los señores del feudo.  Del mismo modo se trataran las deudas que se deban a los no judíos. Et si quiconque décédait en dette à des juifs, son épouse aura sa dot et elle n’aura pas à payer la dette; et si les enfants survivants sont des mineurs, leurs besoins leurs seront fournis à partir des propriétés qui appartenaient au défunt.  La dette sera alors payée avec la balance gardant les droits du Seigneur qui garde les terres.  Il en sera de même pour les dettes qui sont dues à d’autres que des juifs. E se un uomo muore e deve del denaro ad Ebrei, sua moglie riceva la sua dote senza dover pagare alcunché per quel debito, e se il defunto ha lasciato dei figli in minore età, si provvederà ai loro bisogni in misura adeguata al patrimonio del defunto e il debito sarà pagato con il residuo, a parte quanto dovuto ai signori feudatari; nello stesso modo sarà fatto con persone che non siano ebrei.

MC.12

Nullum scutagium vel auxilium ponatur in regno nostro, nisi per commune consilium regni nostri, nisi ad corpus nostrum redimendum, et primogenitum filium nostrum militem faciendum, et ad filiam nostram primogenitam semel maritandam, et ad hec non fiat nisi racionabile auxilium; simili modo fiat de auxiliis de civitate Londoniarum. Neither scutage nor aid shall be imposed on our kingdom, unless by common counsel of our kingdom, except for ransoming our person, for making our eldest son a knight, and for once marrying our eldest daughter; and for these there shall not be levied more than a reasonable aid.  In like manner it shall be done concerning aids from the city of London. No ‘scutage’ or ‘aid’ may be levied in our kingdom without its general consent, unless it is for the ransom of our person, to make our eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry our eldest daughter.  For these purposes only a reasonable ‘aid’ may be levied.  ‘Aids’ from the city of London are to be treated similarly. No se podrá exigir “fonsadera” ni “auxilio” en nuestro Reino sin el consentimiento general, a menos que fuere para el rescate de nuestra persona, para armar caballero a nuestro hijo primogénito y para casar (una sola vez) a nuestra hija mayor.  Con este fin solo se podrá establecer un “auxilio” razonable y la misma regla se seguirá con las “ayudas” de la ciudad de Londres. Aucun impôt ou aide ne sera imposé, dans Notre Royaume, sans le consentement du Conseil Commun de Notre Royaume, à moins que ce ne soit pour la rançon de Notre personne, pour faire notre fils aîné chevalier ou, pour une fois seulement, le mariage de notre fille aînée.  Et, pour ceci, il ne sera levé qu’une aide raisonnable. Nessun pagamento di o sarà imposto nel nostro regno se non per comune consenso, a meno che non sia per il riscatto della nostra persona e per la nomina a cavaliere del nostro figlio primogenito e una sola volta per il matrimonio della nostra figlia maggiore, per tali fini sarà imposto solo un ragionevole ; lo stesso vale per gli della città di Londra.

MC.13

Et civitas Londoniarum habeat omnes antiquas libertates et liberas consuetudines suas, tam per terras quam per aquas.  Preterea volumus et concedimus quod omnes alie civitates, et burgi, et ville, et portus, habeant omnes libertates et liberas consuetudines suas. And the city of London shall have all its ancient liberties and free customs, as well by land as by water; furthermore, we decree and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall have all their liberties and free customs. The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs, both by land and by water.  We also will and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall enjoy all their liberties and free customs. La ciudad de Londres gozará de todas sus libertades antiguas y franquicias tanto por tierra como por mar.  Asimismo, queremos y otorgamos que las demás ciudades, burgos, poblaciones y puertos gocen de todas sus libertades y franquicias. Il en sera de même pour le soutien de la Cité de Londres.  Et la Cité de Londres aura toutes ses anciennes libertés et libres coutumes, autant sur terre que sur les voies maritimes.  En outre, nous voulons et concédons que tous les autres cités, villages, villes et ports, auront leurs entières libertés et libres coutumes. La città di Londra abbia tutte le sue antiche libertà e le sue libere consuetudini, sia per terre sia per acque.  Inoltre vogliamo e concediamo che tutte le altre città, borghi, villaggi e porti abbiano tutte le loro libertà e libere consuetudini.

MC.14

Et ad habendum commune consilium regni de auxilio assidendo aliter quam in tribus casibus predictis, vel de scutagio assidendo, summoneri faciemus archiepiscopos, episcopos, abbates, comites, et majores barones sigillatim per litteras nostras; et preterea faciemus summoneri in generali per vicecomites et ballivos nostros omnes illos qui de nobis tenent in capite ad certum diem, scilicet ad terminum quadraginta dierum ad minus, et ad certum locum; et in omnibus litteris illius summonicionis causam summonicionis exprimemus; et sic facta summonicione negocium ad diem assignatum procedat secundum consilium illorum qui presentes fuerint, quamvis non omnes summoniti venerint. And for obtaining the common counsel of the kingdom and the assessing of an aid (except in the three cases aforesaid) or of a scutage, we will cause to be summoned the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons, severally by our letters; and we will moveover cause to be summoned generally, through our sheriffs and bailiffs, and others who hold of us in chief, for a fixed date, namely, after the expiry of at least forty days, and at a fixed place; and in all letters of such summons we will specify the reason of the summons.  And when the summons has thus been made, the business shall proceed on the day appointed, according to the counsel of such as are present, even if not all who were summoned have come. To obtain the general consent of the realm for the assessment of an ‘aid’—except in the three cases specified above—or a ‘scutage’, we will cause the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons to be summoned individually by letter.  To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued, through the sheriffs and other officials, to come together on a fixed day (of which at least forty days notice shall be given) and at a fixed place.  In all letters of summons, the cause of the summons will be stated.  When a summons has been issued, the business appointed for the day shall go forward in accordance with the resolution of those present, even if not all those who were summoned have appeared. Para obtener el consentimiento general al establecimiento de un “auxilio” (salvo en los tres casos arriba indicados) o de una “fonsadera” haremos convocar individualmente y por carta a los arzobispos, obispos, abades, duques y barones principales.  A quienes posean tierras directamente de Nos haremos dirigir una convocatoria general, a través de los corregidores y otros agentes, para que se reúnan un día determinado (que se anunciara con cuarenta días, por lo menos, de antelación) y en un lugar señalado.  Se hará constar la causa de la convocatoria en todas las cartas de convocación.  Cuando se haya enviado una convocatoria, el negocio señalado para el día de la misma se tratara con arreglo a lo que acuerden los presentes, aun cuando no hayan comparecido todos los que hubieren sido convocados. En plus, le montant d’aide levé sera déterminé par le Conseil Commun du Royaume, à l’exception des trois cas susdits.  Et, pour déterminer le montant des impôts, nous convoquerons individuellement par écrit : les Archevêques, Evêques, Abbés, Comtes et Hauts Barons du Royaume, et, en plus, au moins quarante jours avant la convocation, nous ferons convoquer par nos Shériffs et Huissiers, de façon générale, à une date et à un endroit spécifique, tous ceux qui Nous sont principalement responsables; et, dans toutes ces lettres de convocation, Nous donnerons la raison de la convocation.  Et, la convocation étant ainsi réunie, l’on procédera à la détermination de l’affaire au jour indiqué, selon la volonté de ceux qui seront présents, même si tous ceux qui avaient été sommés ne sont pas venus. Per ottenere il generale consenso per l’imposizione di un , eccettuati i tre casi sopra specificati, o di uno faremo convocare con nostre lettere gli arcivescovi, i vescovi, gli abati, i conti ed i maggiori baroni, e faremo emettere da tutti i nostri sceriffi e balivi una convocazione generale di coloro che possiedono terre direttamente per nostra concessione, in un dato giorno, affinché si trovino, con preavviso di almeno quaranta giorni, in un determinato luogo; e in tutte le lettere di convocazione ne indicheremo la causa; quando sarà avvenuta la convocazione, nel giorno stabilito si procederà secondo la risoluzione di coloro che saranno presenti, anche se non tutti i convocati si saranno presentati.

MC.15

Nos non concedemus de cetero alicui quod capiat auxilium de liberis hominibus suis, nisi ad corpus suum redimendum, et ad faciendum primogenitum filium suum militem, et ad primogenitam filiam suam semel maritandam, et ad hec non fiat nisi racionabile auxilium. We will not for the future grant to anyone license to take an aid from his own free tenants, except to ransom his person, to make his eldest son a knight, and once to marry his eldest daughter; and on each of these occasions there shall be levied only a reasonable aid. In future we will allow no one to levy an ‘aid’ from his free men, except to ransom his person, to make his eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry his eldest daughter.  For these purposes only a reasonable ‘aid’ may be levied. En lo sucesivo no permitiremos que nadie exija “ayuda” a alguno de sus vasallos libres salvo para rescatar su propia persona, para armar caballero a su hijo primogénito y para casar (una vez) a su hija mayor.  Con estos fines únicamente se podrá imponer una “ayuda” razonable. Nous ne donnerons dorénavant à personne la permission de prendre de l’aide de ses hommes libres, à moins que ce ne soit pour la rançon de sa personne, pour faire son fils aîné chevalier ou, une fois seulement, le mariage de sa fille aînée; et pourvu que ce soit une aide raisonnable. Noi non concediamo che alcuno chieda un ai suoi uomini liberi, se non per riscattare la sua persona, per fare cavaliere il figlio primogenito o per maritare una sola volta la figlia maggiore e per questi motivi sarà imposto solo un ragionevole.

MC.16

Nullus distringatur ad faciendum majus servicium de feodo militis, nec de alio libero tenemento, quam inde debetur. No one shall be distrained for performance of greater service for a knight’s fee, or for any other free tenement, than is due therefrom. No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight’s ‘fee’, or other free holding of land, than is due from it. Nadie vendrá obligado a prestar mas servicios para el “feudo” de un caballero o cualquier otra tierra que posea libremente, que lo que deba por este concepto. Personne ne sera obligé de faire plus de service qu’il n’en doit pour un fief de Chevalier, ou plus qu’il n’en est dû pour toute autre libre tenure. Nessuno sarà costretto a fornire una prestazione gravosa per il possesso di un feudo di cavaliere o di qualsiasi altro libero obbligo.

MC.17

Communia placita non sequantur curiam nostram, set teneantur in aliquo loco certo. Common pleas shall not follow our court, but shall be held in some fixed place. Ordinary lawsuits shall not follow the royal court around, but shall be held in a fixed place. Los litigios ordinarios ante los Tribunales no seguirán por doquier a la corte real, sino que se celebraran en un lugar determinado. Les plaidoyers ordinaires ne seront pas entendus à Notre cour, mais à un endroit spécifié à cet effet. I processi comuni non seguiranno la nostra corte, ma si terranno in un luogo fisso.

MC.18

Recogniciones de nova disseisina, de morte antecessoris, et de ultima presentacione, non capiantur nisi in suis comitatibus et hoc modo; nos, vel si extra regnum fuerimus capitalis justiciarius noster, mittemus duos justiciarios per unumquemque comitatum per quatuor vices in anno, qui, cum quatuor militibus cujuslibet comitatus electis per comitatum, capiant in comitatu et in die et loco comitatus assisas predictas. Inquests of novel disseisin, of mort d’ancestor, and of darrein presentment shall not be held elsewhere than in their own county courts, and that in manner following; We, or, if we should be out of the realm, our chief justiciar, will send two justiciaries through every county four times a year, who shall alone with four knights of the county chosen by the county, hold the said assizes in the county court, on the day and in the place of meeting of that court. Inquests of novel disseisin, mort d’ancestor, and darrein presentment shall be taken only in their proper county court.  We ourselves, or in our absence abroad our chief justice, will send two justices to each county four times a year, and these justices, with four knights of the county elected by the county itself, shall hold the assizes in the county court, on the day and in the place where the court meets. Solo podrán efectuarse en el tribunal de condado respectivo las actuaciones sobre “desposesión reciente”, “muerte de antepasado” y “ultima declaración”.  Nos mismo, o en nuestra ausencia en el extranjero nuestro Justicia Mayor, enviaremos dos jueces a cada condado cuatro veces al año, y dichos jueces, con cuatro caballeros del condado elegidos por el condado mismo, celebraran los juicios en el tribunal del condado, el día y en el lugar en que se reuna el tribunal. Les assises, les actes de recouvrement de Mort d’Ancêtre et les actes de dernier recours, seront seulement entendus dans le comté de qui dépendent ces causes : Nous, ou Notre Chef Justicier, si Nous sommes à l’extérieur du Royaume, enverrons deux juges dans chaque comté, quatre fois par an, et, avec quatre Chevaliers du comté choisis par le comté, ils entendront lesdites assises dans le comté à la date et à l’endroit prévu. Le inchieste di , , non si svolgeranno se non nella propria contea e a questo modo: noi stessi o, se ci troveremo fuori del nostro regno, il nostro primo giudice manderemo due giudici in ogni contea quattro volte all’anno; e questi giudici, assieme a quattro cavalieri della contea eletti dalla contea stessa, terranno nella contea, in quel giorno e in quel luogo le predette assise.

MC.19

Et si in die comitatus assise predicte capi non possint, tot milites et libere tenentes remaneant de illis qui interfuerint comitatui die illo, per quos possint judicia sufficienter fieri, secundum quod negocium fuerit majus vel minus. And if any of the said assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, let there remain of the knights and freeholders, who were present at the county court on that day, as many as may be required for the efficient making of judgments, according as the business be more or less. If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind, of those who have attended the court, as will suffice for the administration of justice, having regard to the volume of business to be done. Si no pudiese celebrarse audiencia sobre algún caso en la fecha del tribunal de condado, se quedaran allí tantos caballeros y propietarios de los que hayan asistido al tribunal, como sea suficiente para administrar justicia, atendida la cantidad de asuntos que se hayan de ventilar. Et si lesdites assises ne peuvent pas être entendues le jour prévu pour ce comté, qu’autant que possible des chevaliers et des propriétaires qui seront présents, dépendant de l’importance de la cause, restent en arrière en nombre suffisant pour juger de la cause. E se nel giorno stabilito nella contea le assise predette non possono essere tenute, si trattengano tanti dei cavalieri e liberi feudatari presenti nella contea in quel giorno, quanti siano sufficienti per l’amministrazione della giustizia, secondo il numero massimo o minimo dei compiti da svolgere.

MC.20

Liber homo non amercietur pro parvo delicto, nisi secundum modum delicti; et pro magno delicto amercietur secundum magnitudinem delicti, salvo contenemento suo; et mercator eodem modo, salva mercandisa sua; et villanus eodem modo amercietur salvo waynagio suo; si inciderint in misericordiam nostram; et nulla predictarum misericordiarum ponatur, nisi per sacramentum proborum hominum de visneto. A freeman shall not be amerced for a slight offense, except in accordance with the degree of the offense; and for a grave offense he shall be amerced in accordance with the gravity of the offense, yet saving always his “contentment”; and a merchant in the same way, saving his “merchandise”; and a villein shall be amerced in the same way, saving his “wainage” if they have fallen into our mercy: and none of the aforesaid amercements shall be imposed except by the oath of honest men of the neighborhood. For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence, and for a serious offence correspondingly, but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood.  In the same way, a merchant shall be spared his merchandise, and a villein the implements of his husbandry, if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court.  None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood. Por simple falta un hombre libre será multado únicamente en proporción a la gravedad de la infracción y de modo proporcionado por infracciones mas graves, pero no de modo tan gravoso que se le prive de su medio de subsistencia.  Del mismo modo, no se le confiscará al mercader su mercancía ni al labrador los aperos de labranza, en caso de que queden a merced de un tribunal real.  Ninguna de estas multas podrá ser impuesta sin la estimación de hombres buenos de la vecindad. Pour une offense mineure faite par un homme libre, l’amende imposée sera proportionnelle à la gravité de l’offense, et il en sera ainsi pour une offense plus grave, mais sans le priver de son gagne-pain.  La marchandise d’un marchand sera ainsi épargnée, et un agriculteur pourra garder ses accessoires agricoles, s’ils devenaient sujet à la merci de Notre cour.  Aucunes des susdites amendes ne seront imposées sans le témoignage sous serment d’hommes honnêtes et justes du voisinage. Nessun uomo libero sia punito per un piccolo reato, se non con una pena adeguata al reato; e per un grave reato la pena dovrà essere proporzionata alla sua gravità senza privarlo dei mezzi di sussistenza; ugualmente i mercanti non saranno privati della loro mercanzia e allo stesso modo gli agricoltori dei loro utensili; e nessuna delle predette ammende sarà inflitta se non con il giuramento di uomini probi del vicinato.

MC.21

Comites et barones non amercientur nisi per pares suos, et non nisi secundum modum delicti. Earls and barons shall not be amerced except through their peers, and only in accordance with the degree of the offense. Earls and barons shall be fined only by their equals, and in proportion to the gravity of their offence. Los duques y barones serán multados únicamente por sus pares y en proporción a la gravedad del delito. Les Comtes et les Barons ne seront imposés d’amendes que par leurs pairs, et ceci en considération de la nature de leur offense. Conti e baroni non siano multati, se non dai loro pari, e se non secondo la gravità del reato commesso.

MC.22

Nullus clericus amercietur de laico tenemento suo, nisi secundum modum aliorum predictorum, et non secundum quantitatem beneficii sul ecclesiastici. A clerk shall not be amerced in respect of his lay holding except after the manner of the others aforesaid; further, he shall not be amerced in accordance with the extent of his ecclesiastical benefice. A fine imposed upon the lay property of a clerk in holy orders shall be assessed upon the same principles, without reference to the value of his ecclesiastical benefice. Toda multa impuesta sobre bienes temporales de un clérigo ordenado se calculará con arreglo a los mismos principios, excluido el valor del beneficio eclesiástico. Aucun ecclésiastique ne sera condamné à une amende, en considération de sa tenure laïque ou en considération de l’importance de ses services ecclésiatiques, mais seulement par ses pairs, tel que susdit. Nessun religioso sia multato per il suo beneficio laico se non secondo i modi predetti, e non secondo la consistenza del suo beneficio ecclesiastico.

MC.23

Nec villa nec homo distringatur facere pontes ad riparias, nisi qui ab antiquo et de jure facere debent. No village or individual shall be compelled to make bridges at river banks, except those who from of old were legally bound to do so. No town or person shall be forced to build bridges over rivers except those with an ancient obligation to do so. Ninguna ciudad ni persona será obligada a construir puentes sobre ríos, excepto las que tengan de antiguo la obligación de hacerlo. Ni une ville, ni autre personne, ne sera obligé de construire des ponts sur les berges, excepté ceux qui y sont légalement tenus par des anciens engagements. Né villaggio né uomo potrà essere costretto a costruire ponti sulle rive, a meno che non lo debbano fare per diritto e antica consuetudine.

MC.24

Nullus vicecomes, constabularius, coronatores, vel alii ballivi nostri, teneant placita corone nostre. No sheriff, constable, coroners, or others of our bailiffs, shall hold pleas of our Crown. No sheriff, constable, coroners, or other royal officials are to hold lawsuits that should be held by the royal justices. Ningún corregidor, capitán, alguacil o bailio podrá celebrar juicios que competan a los jueces reales. Aucun Shérif, Préfet, Coroner, n’y autre de nos Huissiers, ne pourront intenter de poursuite au nom du Roi. Nessuno sceriffo, conestabile, od altro ufficiale reale può tenere assemblee che spettino alla Corona.

MC.25

Omnes comitatus, hundredi, wapentakii, et trethingi sint ad antiquas firmas absque ullo incremento, exceptis dominicis maneriis nostris. All counties, hundred, wapentakes, and trithings (except our demesne manors) shall remain at the old rents, and without any additional payment. Every county, hundred, wapentake, and riding shall remain at its ancient rent, without increase, except the royal demesne manors. Todos los condados, partidos, subcondados y aldeas conservaran su renta antigua, sin incremento alguno, excepto las fincas del patrimonio real. Tous les comtés, et divisions de comtés, seront aux anciens loyers, sans augmentation, sauf pour les terres de Notre Domaine. Ogni contea, , e , manterrà il vecchio canone, senza aumenti, tranne i nostri manieri signorili.

MC.26

Si aliquis tenens de nobis laicum feodum moriatur, et vicecomes vel ballivus noster ostendat litteras nostras patentes de summonicione nostra de debito quod defunctus nobis debuit, liceat vicecomiti vel ballivo nostro attachiare et inbreviare catalla defuncti inventa in laico feodo, ad valenciam illius debiti, per visum legallum hominum, ita tamen quod nichil inde amoveatur, donec persolvatur nobis debitum quod clarum fuerit, et residuum relinquatur executoribus ad faciendum testamentum defuncti; et si nichil nobis debeatur ab ipso, omnia catalla cedant defuncto, salvis uxori ipsius et pueris racionabilibus partibus suis. If anyone holding of us a lay fief shall die, and our sheriff or bailiff shall exhibit our letters patent of summons for a debt which the deceased owed us, it shall be lawful for our sheriff or bailiff to attach and enroll the chattels of the deceased, found upon the lay fief, to the value of that debt, at the sight of law worthy men, provided always that nothing whatever be thence removed until the debt which is evident shall be fully paid to us; and the residue shall be left to the executors to fulfill the will of the deceased; and if there be nothing due from him to us, all the chattels shall go to the deceased, saving to his wife and children their reasonable shares. If at the death of a man who holds a lay ‘fee’ of the Crown, a sheriff or royal official produces royal letters patent of summons for a debt due to the Crown, it shall be lawful for them to seize and list movable goods found in the lay ‘fee’ of the dead man to the value of the debt, as assessed by worthy men.  Nothing shall be removed until the whole debt is paid, when the residue shall be given over to the executors to carry out the dead man’s will.  If no debt is due to the Crown, all the movable goods shall be regarded as the property of the dead man, except the reasonable shares of his wife and children.

Si a la muerte de un hombre que posea un “feudo” de realengo, un corregidor o bailio presentase cartas patentes de cobro de deudas a la Corona, será licita la ocupación e inventario por aquel de los bienes muebles que se encuentren en el feudo de realengo del difunto, hasta el importe de la deuda, según estimación hecha por hombres-buenos.

No se podrá retirar bien alguno mientras no se haya pagado la totalidad de la deuda y entregado el remanente a los albaceas para que cumplan la voluntad del difunto.  Si no se debiese suma alguna a la Corona, todos los bienes muebles se consideraran como propiedad del finado, excepto las partes razonables de su esposa y sus hijos.

Si quiconque qui est responsable à Nous pour un fief laïque décède, et que Notre shérif présente nos lettres patentes d’assignation pour la dette qui nous était due par le défunt, il sera légal, pour Notre Shérif ou Notre Huissier, d’attacher ou de saisir tous les biens et les propriétés du défunt contenus dans ledit fief, afin que rien ne soit enlevé avant que la dette ait été acquittée, d’après l’inspection et le témoignage d’honnêtes hommes.  La balance sera ensuite remise aux exécuteurs pour l’exécution du testament.  Si rien ne Nous est dû, tous les biens seront disposés d’après le testament du défunt (gardant une part raisonnable pour son épouse et ses enfants). Se muore un vassallo che possiede per conto della corona un feudo laico, si presenteranno uno sceriffo od altro ufficiale con un decreto reale di convocazione, per il debito dovuto dal defunto nei nostri confronti, costoro potranno catalogare e sequestrare i beni mobili che si trovano nel feudo laico del defunto, nella misura dell’entità del debito, sotto il controllo di uomini probi, affinché nulla sia rimosso fino a quando non sarà stato pagato il debito verso la corona; e il rimanente sarà dato agli esecutori testamentari per eseguire il testamento del defunto; e se nulla è dovuto alla corona, tutti i beni mobili saranno considerati proprietà del defunto, tranne le ragionevoli parti riservate alla moglie e ai suoi figli.

MC.27

Si aliquis liber homo intestatus decesserit, catalla sua per manus propinquorum parentum et amicorum suorum, per visum ecclesie, distribuantur, salvis unicuique debitis que defunctus el debebat. If any freeman shall die intestate, his chattels shall be distributed by the hands of his nearest kinsfolk and friends, under supervision of the Church, saving to every one the debts which the deceased owed to him. If a free man dies intestate, his movable goods are to be distributed by his next-of-kin and friends, under the supervision of the Church.  The rights of his debtors are to be preserved. Si un hombre libre muere sin haber hecho testamento, sus bienes muebles serán distribuidos a sus parientes mas próximos y a sus amigos, bajo la supervisión de la Iglesia, si bien serán salvaguardados los derechos de sus deudores. Si un homme libre meurt sans testament, ses biens seront distribués par sa proche parenté et ses amis, sous la surveillance de l’église, après que les dettes du défunt aient été payées à ses créditeurs. Se un uomo libero morrà senza aver fatto testamento, i suoi beni mobili saranno distribuiti ai parenti ed amici sotto il controllo della chiesa, salvi i debiti dovuti dal defunto a chiunque.

MC.28

Nullus constabularius, vel alius ballivus noster, capiat blada vel alia catalla allcujus, nisi statim inde reddat denarios, aut respectum inde habere possit de voluntate venditoris. No constable or other bailiff of ours shall take corn or other provisions from anyone without immediately tendering money therefor, unless he can have postponement thereof by permission of the seller. No constable or other royal official shall take corn or other movable goods from any man without immediate payment, unless the seller voluntarily offers postponement of this. Ningún capitán ni bailio nuestro tomará grano u otros bienes muebles de persona alguna sin pagarlos en el acto, a menos que el vendedor ofrezca espontáneamente el aplazamiento del cobro. Aucun de nos préfets ou huissier ne prendra de qui que ce soit du grain ou d’autres provisions sans payer immédiatement, à moins que le vendeur ne lui accorde volontairement crédit. Nessun conestabile o altro ufficiale della corona potrà prendere frumento od altri beni mobili da alcuno se non pagandoli immediatamente, a meno che non abbia ottenuto una dilazione per libera volontà del venditore.

MC.29

Nullus constabularius distringat aliquem militem ad dandum denarios pro custodia castri, si facere voluerit custodiam illam in propria persona sua, vel per alium probum hominem, si ipse eam facere non possit propter racionabilem causam; et si nos duxerimus vel miserimus eum in exercitum, erit quietus de custodia, secundum quantitatem temporis quo per nos fuerit in exercitu. No constable shall compel any knight to give money in lieu of castle-guard, when he is willing to perform it in his own person, or (if he himself cannot do it from any reasonable cause) then by another responsible man.  Further, if we have led or sent him upon military service, he shall be relieved from guard in proportion to the time during which he has been on service because of us. No constable may compel a knight to pay money for castle-guard if the knight is willing to undertake the guard in person, or with reasonable excuse to supply some other fit man to do it.  A knight taken or sent on military service shall be excused from castle-guard for the period of this service. Ningún capitán podrá obligar a un caballero a pagar suma alguna de dinero por la guardia de castillos si el caballero esta dispuesto a hacer la guardia en persona o, dando excusa justificada, a prestar hombres aptos para que la hagan en su lugar.  Todo caballero requerido o enviado a un servicio de armas estará exento de la guardia de castillos durante el periodo del servicio. Aucun Préfet n’obligera un Chevalier à le payer pour la garde de son château, qu’il en fasse la garde lui-même ou, s’il ne peut pas la faire pour une bonne raison, qu’il la fasse faire par un autre homme responsable.  Et si nous envoyons le Préfet au service militaire, il sera libéré de la garde du château pendant le temps qu’il sera à Notre service. Nessun conestabile potrà costringere un cavaliere a pagare del denaro in cambio della guardia al castello, se quello vorrà assumersi personalmente la custodia o affidarlo a un uomo probo, qualora non possa farlo per un valido motivo; e se noi lo arruoliamo o lo mandiamo a prestare servizio d’armi, sarà affrancato dalla custodia per tutto il periodo di durata del servizio presso di noi.

MC.30

Nullus vicecomes, vel ballivus noster, vel aliquis alius, capiat equos vel carettas allcujus liberi hominis pro cariagio faciendo, nisi de voluntate ipsius liberi hominis. No sheriff or bailiff of ours, or other person, shall take the horses or carts of any freeman for transport duty, against the will of the said freeman. No sheriff, royal official, or other person shall take horses or carts for transport from any free man, without his consent. Ningún corregidor, bailio u otra persona podrá tomar de un hombre libre caballos o carros para el transporte sin el consentimiento de aquél. Aucun de nos Shérif ou Huissiers ou autres ne prendra les chevaux ou les charrettes de quiconque pour le transport, sans la permission du propriétaire. Nessuno sceriffo, ufficiale reale o chiunque altro potrà prendere cavalli o carri ad alcun uomo libero, per lavori di trasporto, se non con il consenso dello stesso uomo libero.

MC.31

Nec nos nec ballivi nostri capiemus alienum boscum ad castra vel alia agenda nostra, nisi per voluntatem ipsius cujus boscus ille fuerit. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall take, for our castles or for any other work of ours, wood which is not ours, against the will of the owner of that wood. Neither we nor any royal official will take wood for our castle, or for any other purpose, without the consent of the owner. Ni Nos ni nuestros bailios llevaremos leña para nuestro castillo o para otra finalidad sin el consentimiento del dueño. Ni Nous, ni nos Huissiers ou autres, ne prendront le bois d’un citoyen pour nos châteaux ou autres besoins, sans la permission du propriétaire du bois. Né noi né alcun ufficiale reale prenderemo legna per il nostro castello o per nostra necessità, se non con il consenso del proprietario del bosco.

MC.32

Nos non tenebimus terras illorum qui convicti fuerint de felonia, nisi per unum annum et unum diem, et tunc reddantur terre dominis feodorum. We will not retain beyond one year and one day, the lands those who have been convicted of felony, and the lands shall thereafter be handed over to the lords of the fiefs. We will not keep the lands of people convicted of felony in our hand for longer than a year and a day, after which they shall be returned to the lords of the ‘fees’ concerned. No retendremos en nuestras manos las tierras de personas condenadas por traición mas de un año y un día, después de lo cual serán devueltas a los señores del “feudo” respectivo. Nous ne garderons pas la tenure des terres de ceux qui ont été condamnés pour un crime, sauf pendant un an et un jour et, par la suite, cette tenure sera remise au Seigneur du fief. Noi non occuperemo le terre di coloro che sono dichiarati colpevoli di fellonia per un periodo più lungo di un anno e un giorno, dopo di che esse saranno restituite ai proprietari del feudo.

MC.33

Omnes kidelli de cetero deponantur penitus de Tamisia, et de Medewaye, et per totam Angliam, nisi per costeram maris. All kydells for the future shall be removed altogether from Thames and Medway, and throughout all England, except upon the seashore. All fish-weirs shall be removed from the Thames, the Medway, and throughout the whole of England, except on the sea coast. Se quitarán todas las empalizadas de pesca del Támesis, del Medway y de toda Inglaterra, excepto las construidas a orillas del mar. Dorénavant tous les barrages seront enlevés de la Tamise, de la Medway, et dans toute l’Angleterre, sauf sur les côtes maritimes. Tutte le reti di sbarramento per catturare i pesci, che si trovino nel Tamigi, nel Medway e in qualsiasi altra parte dell’Inghilterra, fuorché lungo le coste marine, saranno rimosse.

MC.34

Breve quod vocatur ‘Precipe’ de cetero non fiat alicui de aliquo tenemento unde liber homo amittere possit curiam suam. The writ which is called praecipe shall not for the future be issued to anyone, regarding any tenement whereby a freeman may lose his court. The writ called precipe shall not in future be issued to anyone in respect of any holding of land, if a free man could thereby be deprived of the right of trial in his own lord’s court. No se expedirá en lo sucesivo a nadie el requerimiento llamado “precipe” respecto a la posesión de tierras, cuando la expedición del mismo implique la privación para algún hombre libre del derecho a ser juzgado por el tribunal de su propio señor. L’acte judiciaire PRAECIPE IN CAPITE ne sera dorénavant pas émis pour le propriétaire d’une propriété inaliénable, si ledit acte pouvait priver un homme libre de sa cour. Il mandato detto non sarà emesso in futuro per alcuno, in rapporto ad alcuna proprietà, affinché un uomo libero non possa essere privato della proprietà prima del giudizio.

MC.35

Una mensura vini sit per totum regnum nostrum, et una mensura cervisie, et una mensura bladi, scilicet quarterium Londoniense, et una latitudo pannorum tinctorum et russetorum et halbergettorum, scilicet due ulne infra listas; de ponderibus autem sit ut de mensuris. Let there be one measure of wine throughout our whole realm; and one measure of ale; and one measure of corn, to wit, “the London quarter”; and one width of cloth (whether dyed, or russet, or “halberget”), to wit, two ells within the selvedges; of weights also let it be as of measures. There shall be standard measures of wine, ale, and corn (the London quarter), throughout the kingdom.  There shall also be a standard width of dyed cloth, russet, and haberject, namely two ells within the selvedges.  Weights are to be standardised similarly. Habrá patrones de medida para el vino, la cerveza y el grano (el cuarto londinense) en todo el Reino, y habrá también un patrón para la anchura de las telas teñidas, el pardillo y la cota de malla, concretamente dos varas entre las orlas.  Del mismo modo habrán de uniformarse los pesos. Il n’y aura qu’une seule mesure de vin, une mesure de bière et une mesure pour le grain dans tout Notre Royaume, c’est-à-dire, la « pinte de Londres ».  Et il n’y aura qu’une seule largeur de tissu teint, de drap de bure et de toile, c’est-à-dire, deux aunes entre les lisières.  Il en sera de même pour les poids et pour les mesures. Che vi sia una sola misura di vino, birra e frumento in tutto il regno; e cioè il londinese, e un’unica altezza, per panni di diversa (bianca e rossa) tintura, cioè di un braccio da un bordo all’altro; lo stesso sia per i pesi e altre misure.

MC.36

Nichil detur vel capiatur de cetero pro brevi inquisicionis de vita vel membris, set gratis concedatur et non negetur. Nothing in future shall be given or taken for a writ of inquisition of life or limbs, but freely it shall be granted, and never denied. In future nothing shall be paid or accepted for the issue of a writ of inquisition of life or limbs.  It shall be given gratis, and not refused. En lo sucesivo no se pagará ni se aceptará nada por la expedición de un auto de investigación de vida y bienes, el cual se otorgará gratis y no podrá ser denegado. Rien ne sera dorénavant payé ou chargé pour un mandat d’accusation, qui menace les droits et libertés de l’accusé.  Le mandat sera gratuit et ne sera jamais refusé. Nulla sarà d’ora in poi pagato od accettato per un mandato di inchiesta per omicidio o ferimento; esso sarà concesso gratuitamente e non sarà negato.

MC.37

Si aliquis teneat de nobis per feodifirmam, vel per sokagium, vel per burgagium, et de alio terram, teneat per servicium militare, nos non habebimus custodiam heredis nec terre sue que est de feodo alterius occasione illius feodifirme, vel sokagii, vel burgagii; nec habebimus custodiam illius feodifirme, vel sokagii, vel burgagii, nisi ipsa feodifirma debeat servicium militare.  Nos non habebimus custodiam heredis vel terre alicujus, quam tenet de alio per servicium militare, occasione alicujus parve serjanterie quam tenet de nobis per servicium reddendi nobis cultellos, vel sagittas, vel hujusmodi. If anyone holds of us by fee-farm, either by socage or by burgage, or of any other land by knight’s service, we will not (by reason of that fee-farm, socage, or burgage), have the wardship of the heir, or of such land of his as if of the fief of that other; nor shall we have wardship of that fee-farm, socage, or burgage, unless such fee-farm owes knight’s service.  We will not by reason of any small serjeancy which anyone may hold of us by the service of rendering to us knives, arrows, or the like, have wardship of his heir or of the land which he holds of another lord by knight’s service. If a man holds land of the Crown by ‘fee-farm’, ‘socage’, or ‘burgage’, and also holds land of someone else for knight’s service, we will not have guardianship of his heir, nor of the land that belongs to the other person’s ‘fee’, by virtue of the ‘fee-farm’, ‘socage’, or ‘burgage’, unless the ‘fee-farm’ owes knight’s service.  We will not have the guardianship of a man’s heir, or of land that he holds of someone else, by reason of any small property that he may hold of the Crown for a service of knives, arrows, or the like. Si un hombre posee tierras de realengo a título de “feudo en renta perpetua”, de “servicios” o de “renta anual” y posee asimismo tierras de otra persona en concepto de servicio de caballería, no asumiremos la tutela de su heredero ni de la tierra que pertenezca al “feudo” de la otra persona en virtud de la “renta perpetua”, de los “servicios” o de la “renta anual”, a menos que el “feudo en renta perpetua” este sujeto a servicio de caballería.  No asumiremos la tutela del heredero de un hombre ni la guardia de la tierra que ese hombre poseyera de manos de otro por el hecho de que detente pequeñas propiedades de la Corona a cambio de un servicio de caballeros o arqueros o de índole análoga. Si quelqu’un est responsable à Nous pour un fief en tenure, par bail ou location, et garde les terres d’un autre pendant son service militaire, nous n’aurons pas la tutelle de ses héritiers, ni des terres qui appartiennent au fief d’un autre, en vertu de ce fief en tenure, par bail ou location.  Nous n’aurons pas non plus la tutelle de telles fermes en tenure, par bail ou location, sauf si le service militaire Nous est dû par ledit fief en tenure.  Nous n’aurons pas la tutelle des héritiers, ni des terres de quelqu’un qui les garde pour nous, en considération de quelques menus services qu’il Nous doit, tel que des poignards, des flèches ou autres. Se un uomo possiede una terra per concessione della corona come , o , e possiede pure una terra per concessione di un altro signore contro il servizio di cavaliere, noi non avremo, in virtù di tali , o , la tutela del suo erede né della terra che appartiene al feudo dell’altra persona, a meno che il non comporti un servizio di cavaliere.  Noi non avremo la tutela dell’erede o della terra di alcuno che egli possiede per conto di un altro in base ai che egli tiene per conto della corona, per servizio di pugnali, frecce o simili.

MC.38

Nullus ballivus ponat decetero aliquem ad legem simplici loquela sua, sine testibus fidelibus ad hoc inductis. No bailiff for the future shall, upon his own unsupported complaint, put anyone to his “law” without credible witnesses brought for this purposes. In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement, without producing credible witnesses to the truth of it. En lo sucesivo ningún bailio llevara a los tribunales a un hombre en virtud únicamente de acusaciones suyas, sin presentar al mismo tiempo a testigos directos dignos de crédito sobre la veracidad de aquellas. Aucun Huissier ne soumettra dorénavant quiconque à sa loi, sur sa seule accusation non corroborée, sans produire des témoins fiables convoqués pour cette raison. Nessun balivo d’ora in poi potrà portare in giudizio un uomo sulla base della propria affermazione, senza produrre dei testimoni attendibili che ne provino la veridicità.

MC.39

Nullus liber homo capiatur, vel imprisonetur, aut disseisiatur, aut utlagetur, aut exuletur, aut aliquo modo destruatur, nec super cum ibimus, nec super cum mittemus, nisi per legale judicium parium suorum vel per legem terre. No freeman shall be taken captive or imprisoned, or deprived of his lands, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor will we go with force against him nor send forces against him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land. Ningún hombre libre podrá ser detenido o encarcelado o privado de sus derechos o de sus bienes, ni puesto fuera de la ley ni desterrado o privado de su rango de cualquier otra forma, ni usaremos de la fuerza contra el ni enviaremos a otros que lo hagan, sino en virtud de sentencia judicial de sus pares y con arreglo a la ley del reino. Aucun homme libre ne sera saisi, ni emprisonné ou dépossédé de ses biens, déclaré hors-la-loi, exilé ou exécuté, de quelques manières que ce soit.  Nous ne le condamnerons pas non plus à l’emprisonnement sans un jugement légal de ses pairs, conforme aux lois du pays. Nessun uomo libero sarà arrestato, imprigionato, multato, messo fuori legge, esiliato o molestato in alcun modo, né noi useremo la forza nei suoi confronti o demanderemo di farlo ad altre persone, se non per giudizio legale dei suoi pari e per la legge del regno.

MC.40

Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus aut differemus rectum aut justiciam. We will not sell, nor will we deny or delay, right or justice. To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice. No venderemos, denegaremos ni retrasaremos a nadie su derecho a la justicia. A personne Nous ne vendrons, refuserons ou retarderons, les droits à la justice. A nessuno venderemo, negheremo, differiremo o rifiuteremo il diritto o la giustizia.

MC.41

Omnes mercatores habeant salvum et securum exire de Anglia, et venire in Angliam, et morari, et ire per Angliam, tam per terram quam per aquam, ad emendum et vendendum, sine omnibus malis toltis, per antiquas et rectas consuetudines, preterquam in tempore gwerre, et si sint de terra contra nos gwerrina; et si tales inveniantur in terra nostra in principio gwerre, attachientur sine dampno corporum et rerum, donec sciatur a nobis vel capitali justiciario nostro quomodo mercatores terre nostre tractentur, qui tunc invenientur in terra contra nos gwerrina; et si nostri salvi sint ibi, alii salvi sint in terra nostra. All merchants shall have safe and secure exit from England, and entry to England, with the right to tarry there and to move about as well by land as by water, for buying and selling by the ancient and right customs, quit from all evil tolls, except (in time of war) such merchants as are of the land at war with us.  And if such are found in our land at the beginning of the war, they shall be detained, without injury to their bodies or goods, until information be received by us, or by our chief justiciar, how the merchants of our land found in the land at war with us are treated; and if our men are safe there, the others shall be safe in our land. All merchants may enter or leave England unharmed and without fear, and may stay or travel within it, by land or water, for purposes of trade, free from all illegal exactions, in accordance with ancient and lawful customs.  This, however, does not apply in time of war to merchants from a country that is at war with us.  Any such merchants found in our country at the outbreak of war shall be detained without injury to their persons or property, until we or our chief justice have discovered how our own merchants are being treated in the country at war with us.  If our own merchants are safe they shall be safe too. Todos los mercaderes podrán entrar en Inglaterra y salir de ella sin sufrir daño y sin temor, y podrán permanecer en el reino y viajar dentro de el, por vía terrestre o acuática, para el ejercicio del comercio, y libres de toda exacción ilegal, con arreglo a los usos antiguos y legítimos.  Sin embargo, no se aplicara lo anterior en época de guerra a los mercaderes de un territorio que este en guerra con nosotros.  Todos los mercaderes de ese territorio hallados en nuestro reino al comenzar la guerra serán detenidos, sin que sufran daño en su persona o en sus bienes, hasta que Nos o nuestro Justicia Mayor hayamos descubierto como se trata a nuestros comerciantes en el territorio que este en guerra con nosotros, y si nuestros comerciantes no han sufrido perjuicio, tampoco lo sufrirán aquellos. Tous les marchands (s’ils n’en avaient pas été interdits auparavant) pourront sortir et entrer en Angleterre, y demeurer et circuler librement en toute sécurité par voies terrestres ou voie maritime, pour acheter ou vendre, d’après les anciens droits et coutumes, sans péage malveillant, excepté en temps de guerre.  Si ces marchands viennent d’un pays qui est en guerre contre Nous et qu’ils sont découverts dans Notre royaume au début de la guerre, ils seront retenus sans outrage à leur personne ou à leurs biens, jusqu’à ce qu’il soit connu de Nous ou de Notre Chef Justicier de quelle façon Nos marchands sont traités lorsqu’ils sont découverts dans leur pays.  Et s’ils y sont bien traités, ils le seront aussi avec Nous. Tutti i mercanti siano salvi e sicuri di uscire dall’Inghilterra e di entrare in Inghilterra, soggiornare e viaggiare in Inghilterra sia per terra che per acqua per comprare o vendere, liberi da ingiusta tassa secondo le antiche e buone consuetudini; eccetto in tempo di guerra e se appartengano ad un paese nostro nemico; e se tali mercanti si trovassero nel nostro territorio al principio della guerra, saranno trattenuti, senza alcun danno alle loro persone ed alle loro cose, fino a quando noi o il nostro primo giudice non saremo informati in quale modo vengano trattati i nostri mercanti che si trovino nel paese in guerra con noi; e se i nostri lì sono salvi, altrettanto siano salvi gli altri nelle nostre terre.

MC.42

Liceat unicuique decetero exire de regno nostro, et redire, salvo et secure, per terram et per aquam, salva fide nostra, nisi tempore gwerre per aliquod breve tempus, propter communem utilitatem regni, exceptis imprisonatis et utlagatis secundum legem regni, et gente de terra contra nos gwerrina, et mercatoribus, de quibus fiat sicut predictum est. It shall be lawful in future for anyone (excepting always those imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the kingdom, and natives of any country at war with us, and merchants, who shall be treated as if above provided) to leave our kingdom and to return, safe and secure by land and water, except for a short period in time of war, on grounds of public policy- reserving always the allegiance due to us. In future it shall be lawful for any man to leave and return to our kingdom unharmed and without fear, by land or water, preserving his allegiance to us, except in time of war, for some short period, for the common benefit of the realm.  People that have been imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the land, people from a country that is at war with us, and merchants—who shall be dealt with as stated above—are excepted from this provision. En lo sucesivo todo hombre podrá dejar nuestro reino y volver a el sin sufrir daúo y sin temor, por tierra o por mar, si bien manteniendo su vinculo de fidelidad con Nos, excepto en época de guerra, por un breve lapso y para el bien común del Reino.  Quedaran exceptuadas de esta norma las personas que hayan sido encarceladas o puestas fuera de la ley con arreglo a la ley del Reino, las personas de territorios que estén en guerra con Nos y los mercaderes, que serán tratados del modo indicado anteriormente. Il sera dorénavant légal pour toute personne qui Nous est loyal de sortir de notre royaume et d’y revenir, librement et en toute sécurité, par voie terrestre ou voie maritime.  Sauf temporairement, en temps de guerre, pour le bien commun du Royaume.  Et, à l’exception des prisonniers et des hors-la-loi, qui seront traité d’après les lois du pays, et du peuple de la nation qui en guerre contre nous.  Les marchands seront traités tel que susdit. D’ora in poi sarà lecito a chiunque uscire ed entrare nel nostro regno, salvo e sicuro, per terra o per acqua, salva la fedeltà a noi dovuta se non per un breve periodo in tempo di guerra, per il comune vantaggio del reame; eccetto quelli che sono stati imprigionati o messi fuori legge secondo le leggi del regno, e le persone appartenenti ad un paese in guerra con noi, e i mercanti, si farà come è stato sopra detto.

MC.43

Si quis tenuerit de aliqua eskaeta, sicut de honore Wallingefordie, Notingeham, Bolonie, Lancastrie, vel de aliis eskaetis que sunt in manu nostra et sunt baronie, et obierit, heres ejus non det aliud relevium, nec faciat nobis aliud servicium quam faceret baroni si baronia illa esset in manu baronis; et nos eodem modo eam tenebimus quo baro eam tenuit. If anyone holding of some escheat (such as the honour of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other escheats which are in our hands and are baronies) shall die, his heir shall give no other relief, and perform no other service to us than he would have done to the baron if that barony had been in the baron’s hand; and we shall hold it in the same manner in which the baron held it. If a man holds lands of any ‘escheat’ such as the ‘honour’ of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other ‘escheats’ in our hand that are baronies, at his death his heir shall give us only the ‘relief’ and service that he would have made to the baron, had the barony been in the baron’s hand.  We will hold the ‘escheat’ in the same manner as the baron held it. Si algún hombre poseyera tierras de “reversión”, tales como el “honor” de Wallington, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster o de otras “reversiones” en nuestro poder que sean baronías, a la muerte de aquel su heredero nos pagara únicamente el “derecho de sucesión” y el servicio que habría tenido que pagar al barón en el caso de que la baronía se hubiese hallado en manos de este, y Nos retendremos lo “revertido” del mismo modo que lo tenia el barón. Si quiconque détient de Nous une tenure, tel que l’honneur de Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne ou tout autre, et qu’ils sont des Barons, et qu’ils décèdent, leurs héritiers ne Nous donneront pas d’autres compensations ou services que ceux qui auraient été dûs au Baron, de la même façon que si cette tenure appartenait encore au Baron.  Et Nous la garderons de la même façon que si elle appartenait encore au Baron. Se alcuno possiede una proprietà in come gli di Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, od altre proprietà che sono in nostro possesso e che sono baronie, alla sua morte il suo erede ci dovrà solo il riscatto ed il servizio di cui sarebbe stato debitore verso il barone, se la baronia fosse stata ancora di proprietà del barone; e noi la terremo nello stesso modo in cui la teneva il barone.

MC.44

Homines qui manent extra forestam non veniant decetero coram justiciariis nostris de foresta per communes summoniciones, nisi sint in placito, vel plegii alicujus vel aliquorum, qui attachiati sint pro foresta. Men who dwell without the forest need not henceforth come before our justiciaries of the forest upon a general summons, unless they are in plea, or sureties of one or more, who are attached for the forest. People who live outside the forest need not in future appear before the royal justices of the forest in answer to general summonses, unless they are actually involved in proceedings or are sureties for someone who has been seized for a forest offence. Las personas que vivan fuera de los bosques no estarán obligadas en lo sucesivo a comparecer ante los jueces reales forestales en virtud de requerimientos generales, a menos que se hallen efectivamente implicadas en actuaciones o sean fiadores de alguien que haya sido detenido por un delito forestal. Les hommes qui habitent à l’extérieur de Notre forêt ne comparaîtront pas désormais, suite à une convocation générale, devant nos Juges de la forêt, mais seulement s’ils sont impliqués dans un plaidoyer, ou qu’ils doivent témoigner pour un ou plusieurs habitants de la forêt. Gli uomini, che vivono al di fuori della foresta, d’ora in poi non dovranno in futuro venire davanti ai giudici della foresta in seguito ad una citazione comune, a meno che non siano implicati in un’azione legale o non siano garanti per qualcuno che sia stato arrestato per reati contro la foresta.

MC.45

Nos non faciemus justiciarios, constabularios, vicecomites, vel ballivos, nisi de talibus qui sciant legem regni et eam bene velint observare. We will appoint as justices, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs only such as know the law of the realm and mean to observe it well. We will appoint as justices, constables, sheriffs, or other officials, only men that know the law of the realm and are minded to keep it well. No nombraremos jueces, capitanes, corregidores ni bailios sino a hombres que conozcan las leyes del Reino y tengan el propósito de guardarlas cabalmente. Nous ne nommerons aucune personne comme Juge, Préfet, Shérif ou Huissier, à moins qu’ils connaissent les lois du pays, et qu’ils soient bien disposés à les observer. Noi nomineremo giudici, conestabili, sceriffi od ufficiali se non coloro che conoscano la legge del regno e vogliano ben osservarla.

MC.46

Omnes barones qui fundaverunt abbacias, unde habent cartas regum Anglie, vel antiquam tenuram, habeant earum custodiam cum vacaverint, sicut habere debent. All barons who have founded abbeys, concerning which they hold charters from the kings of England, or of which they have long continued possession, shall have the wardship of them, when vacant, as they ought to have. All barons who have founded abbeys, and have charters of English kings or ancient tenure as evidence of this, may have guardianship of them when there is no abbot, as is their due. Todos los barones que hayan fundado abadías y que tengan cartas patentes de reyes de Inglaterra o posesión de antiguo en prueba de ellos podrán ejercer el patronato de aquellas cuando estén vacantes, como en derecho les corresponde. Tous les Barons qui ont fondé des abbayes, pour lesquelles ils ont reçu des chartes des rois d’Angleterre, ou par ancienne tenure, auront la tenure de ces abbayes, lorsqu’elles deviendront vacantes, tel qu’il en est leur droit. I baroni che hanno fondato abbazie e possono provarlo con documenti del regno d’Inghilterra o per antico possesso, potranno amministrare le dette abbazie in vacanza dell’abate, com’è loro diritto.

MC.47

Omnes foreste que afforestate sunt tempore nostro, statim deafforestentur; et ita fiat de ripariis que per nos tempore nostro posite sunt in defenso. All forests that have been made such in our time shall forthwith be disafforsted; and a similar course shall be followed with regard to river banks that have been placed “in defense” by us in our time. All forests that have been created in our reign shall at once be disafforested.  River-banks that have been enclosed in our reign shall be treated similarly. Todos los bosques que se hayan plantado durante nuestro reinado serán talados sin demora, y lo mismo se hará con las orillas de los ríos que hayan sido cercadas durante nuestro reinado. Toutes les plantations forestières cultivées, durant Notre règne, seront immédiatement défrichées.  Il en sera ainsi pour les berges, qui ont été prises ou clôturées par Nous, durant Notre règne. Tutti i territori che sono stati dichiarati foreste durante il nostro regno, perderanno immediatamente tale stato.  Lo stesso sarà per le sponde dei fiumi poste sotto riserva durante il nostro regno.

MC.48

Omnes male consuetudines, de forestis et warennis, et de forestariis et warennariis, vicecomitibus et eorum ministris, ripariis et earum custodibus, statim inquirantur in quolibet comitatu per duodecim milites, juratos de eodem comitatu, qui debent eligi per probos homines ejusdem comitatus, et infra quadraginta dies post inquisicionem factam, penitus, ita quod numquam revocentur, deleantur per eosdem, ita quod nos hoc sciamus prius, vel justiciarius noster, si in Anglia non fuerimus. All evil customs connected with forests and warrens, foresters and warreners, sheriffs and their officers, river banks and their wardens, shall immediately by inquired into in each county by twelve sworn knights of the same county chosen by the honest men of the same county, and shall, within forty days of the said inquest, be utterly abolished, so as never to be restored, provided always that we previously have intimation thereof, or our justiciar, if we should not be in England. All evil customs relating to forests and warrens, foresters, warreners, sheriffs and their servants, or river-banks and their wardens, are at once to be investigated in every county by twelve sworn knights of the county, and within forty days of their enquiry the evil customs are to be abolished completely and irrevocably.  But we, or our chief justice if we are not in England, are first to be informed. Todos los malos usos en materia de bosques y cotos de caza, guardabosques, guardacotos, corregidores y sus bailios, o de orillas de ríos por guardianes de estas, deberán ser inmediatamente objeto de investigación en cada condado por doce caballeros juramentados del propio condado, y antes de cumplirse los cuarenta días de la investigación esos malos usos deberán ser abolidos total e irrevocablemente, si bien Nos, y de no estar Nos en Inglaterra Nuestra Justicia Mayor, deberemos ser informados primero. Toutes les vilaines coutumes des forêts et des réserves de chasse, et des forestiers et des gardes de chasse, des shérifs et de leurs officiers, ainsi que celles des berges et de leur gardiens, seront immédiatement mises à l’enquête dans chaque comté par douze Chevaliers assermentés de ce comté.  Quarante jours après l’enquête, ces réserves de chasse et ces berges seront entièrement abolies et ne seront jamais reconstituées.  À condition que Nous ou Notre Juge (si Nous ne sommes pas en Angleterre) en soit toujours préalablement avisé. Tutte le cattive consuetudini relative alle foreste e alle riserve, alle guardie di foreste e di riserve, sceriffi e loro aiutanti, sponde dei fiumi e loro custodi, siano immediatamente controllate da un comitato di dodici cavalieri giurati della stessa contea che devono essere eletti ugualmente da un comitato di uomini probi, ed entro quaranta giorni dal compimento dell’inchiesta dovranno essere, senza possibilità di revoca, eliminate (lo stesso valga se noi saremo fuori dell’Inghilterra, purché noi o il nostro primo giudice ne saremo stati prima informati).

MC.49

Omnes obsides, et cartas statim reddemus, que liberate fuerunt nobis ab Anglicis in securitatem pacis vel fidelis servicii. We will immediately restore all hostages and charters delivered to us by Englishmen, as sureties of the peace of faithful service. We will at once return all hostages and charters delivered up to us by Englishmen as security for peace or for loyal service. Devolveremos inmediatamente todos los rehenes y cartas que nos han sido entregados por los ingleses como garantía de paz o de lealtad en el servicio. Nous rendrons tous les otages et les chartes qui nous ont été livrés par les Anglais, en gage de paix et de leur fidèle service. Noi restituiremo immediatamente tutti gli ostaggi e le carte consegnatici dai sudditi inglesi a garanzia della pace e della fedeltà.

MC.50

Nos amovebimus penitus de balliis, parentes Gerardi de Athyes, quod decetero nullam habeant balliam in Anglia, Engelardum de Cygony, Petrum et Gionem et Andream de Cancellis, Gionem de Cygony, Galfridum de Martinny et fratres ejus, Philippum Marc et fratres ejus, et Galfridum nepotem ejus, et totam sequelam eorundem. We will entirely remove from their bailiwicks, the relations of Gerard of Athee (so that in future they shall have no bailiwick in England); namely, Engelard of Cigogne, Peter, Guy, and Andrew of Chanceaux, Guy of Cigogne, Geoffrey of Martigny with his brothers, Philip Mark with his brothers and his nephew Geoffrey, and the whole brood of the same. We will remove completely from their offices the kinsmen of Gerard de Athée, and in future they shall hold no offices in England.  The people in question are Engelard de Cigogné, Peter, Guy, and Andrew de Chanceaux, Guy de Cigogné, Geoffrey de Martigny and his brothers, Philip Marc and his brothers, with Geoffrey his nephew, and all their followers. Separaremos completamente de sus cargos a los parientes de Gerardo de Athee, quienes no podrán en lo sucesivo ejercer cargos en Inglaterra.  Las personas en cuestión son Engelardo de Cigogne, Pedro Guy y Andrés de Chanceaux, Guy de Ggogne, Godofredo de Martigny y sus hermanos.  Felipe Marc y sus herederos hermanos, con Godofredo, su sobrino, y todos sus seguidores. Nous expulserons de leurs repaires les relations de Gérard d’Athys, afin qu’ils n’aient dorénavant aucun repaire en Angleterre, c’est-à-dire, Engelard de Cygony, Geoffrey de Martin, et ses frères, Philip Mark, et ses frères, et Geoffrey son neveu, et toute cette clique. Rimuoveremo completamente dalle loro cariche i parenti di Gerard de Athée, d’ora in poi non permetteremo loro di avere più alcun ufficio in Inghilterra.  Le persone in questione sono: Engelard de Cigogné, Peter e Guy, Andrew de Chanceaux, Guy de Cigogné, Geoffrey de Martigny e i suoi fratelli, Philip Marc con i suoi fratelli e suo nipote Geoffrey, e tutti i loro seguaci.

MC.51

Et statim post pacis reformacionem amovebimus de regno omnes alienigenas milites, balistarios, servientes, stipendiarios, qui venerint cum equis et armis ad nocumentum regni. As soon as peace is restored, we will banish from the kingdom all foreign born knights, crossbowmen, serjeants, and mercenary soldiers who have come with horses and arms to the kingdom’s hurt. As soon as peace is restored, we will remove from the kingdom all the foreign knights, bowmen, their attendants, and the mercenaries that have come to it, to its harm, with horses and arms. Tan pronto como se restablezca la paz, expulsaremos del reino a todos los caballeros y arqueros extranjeros, a sus servidores y a los mercenarios que hayan entrado con daño para el reino, con sus caballos y sus armas. Et, immédiatement après la conclusion de la paix, Nous bannirons du Royaume tous les Chevaliers, archers, et les soldats mercenaires étrangers, qui sont venus ici avec leurs chevaux et leurs armes au détriment du Royaume. Non appena la pace sarà restaurata allontaneremo dal nostro regno tutti i cavalieri stranieri, balestrieri, sergenti, mercenari che sono arrivati con cavalli e armi con grave danno per il regno.

MC.52

Si quis fuerit disseisitus vel elongatus per nos sine legali judicio parium suorum de terris, castellis, libertatibus, vel jure suo, statim ea ei restituemus; et si contencio super hoc orta fuerit, tunc inde fiat per judicium viginti quinque baronum, de quibus fit mencio inferius in securitate pacis.  De omnibus autem illis de quibus aliquis disseisitus fuerit vel elongatus sine legali judicio parium suorum, per Henricum regem patrem nostrum vel per Ricardum regem fratrem nostrum, que in manu nostra habemus, vel que alii tenent, que nos oporteat warantizare, respectum habebimus usque ad communem terminum crucesignatorum, exceptis illis de quibus placitum motum fuit vel inquisicio facta per preceptum nostrum ante suscepcionem crucis nostre; cum autem redierimus de peregrinacione nostra, vel si forte remanserimus a peregrinacione nostra, statim inde plenam justiciam exhibebimus. If anyone has been dispossessed or removed by us, without the legal judgment of his peers, from his lands, castles, franchises, or from his right, we will immediately restore them to him; and if a dispute arise over this, then let it be decided by the five and twenty barons of whom mention is made below in the clause for securing the peace.  Moreover, for all those possessions, from which anyone has, without the lawful judgment of his peers, been disseised or removed, by our father, King Henry, or by our brother, King Richard, and which we retain in our hand (or which as possessed by others, to whom we are bound to warrant them) we shall have respite until the usual term of crusaders; excepting those things about which a plea has been raised, or an inquest made by our order, before our taking of the cross; but as soon as we return from the expedition, we will immediately grant full justice therein. To any man whom we have deprived or dispossessed of lands, castles, liberties, or rights, without the lawful judgement of his equals, we will at once restore these.  In cases of dispute the matter shall be resolved by the judgement of the twenty-five barons referred to below in the clause for securing the peace.  In cases, however, where a man was deprived or dispossessed of something without the lawful judgement of his equals by our father King Henry or our brother King Richard, and it remains in our hands or is held by others under our warranty, we shall have respite for the period commonly allowed to Crusaders, unless a lawsuit had been begun, or an enquiry had been made at our order, before we took the Cross as a Crusader.  On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once render justice in full. A quien hayamos privado o desposeído de tierras, castillos, libertades o derechos sin legitimo juicio de sus pares se los devolveremos en el acto.  En casos litigiosos el asunto será resuelto por el juicio de los veinticinco barones a que se refiere mas adelante la cláusula de garantía de la paz.  En el supuesto, sin embargo, de que algún hombre haya sido privado o desposeído de algo que este fuera del ámbito legitimo de enjuiciamiento de sus pares por nuestro padre el Rey Enrique o nuestro hermano Ricardo, y que permanezca en nuestras manos o este en posesión de terceros por concesión nuestra, tendremos una moratoria por el periodo generalmente concedido a los Cruzados, a menos que estuviese pendiente un litigio judicial o que se hubiese entablado una indagación por orden nuestra, antes de que tomáramos la Cruz en calidad de Cruzados.  A nuestro regreso de la Cruzada o, si desistimos de ella, haremos inmediatamente justicia por entero. Si quiconque a été saisi ou dépossédé de ses terres ou château par Nous, ou qu’il a été privé de ses droits et libertés sans un jugement légal de ses pairs, Nous lui restituerons ceci immédiatement.  Et s’il survenait une dispute à ce sujet, la dispute sera alors conciliée par le verdict des vingt-cinq Barons mentionnés ci-dessous en égard pour la paix.  Il en sera ainsi pour les biens de quiconque, qui ont été saisis par le Roi Henry Notre père ou le Roi Richard Notre frère, sans le verdict de ses pairs et que Nous avons en Notre possession, ou que Nous tenons par mandat.  Mais Nous aurons répit, jusqu’à la fin normale du terme de la croisade, excepté pour ceux pour lesquels un plaidoyer avait été invoqué ou pour lesquels une enquête avait été entreprise par Notre Précepte, avant que Nous ayons pris la Croix.  Aussitôt que Nous serons revenus de Notre mission, ou, si par hasard, Nous n’irions pas en mission, Nous leur accorderons immédiatement toute justice dans ces causes. Se qualcuno è stato da noi spossessato o privato senza un legale processo dei suoi pari, di terre, castelli, delle libertà o dei diritti, immediatamente glieli restituiremo; e se sorgono casi controversi, essi saranno decisi dal giudizio dei venticinque baroni cui si fa riferimento sotto relativamente alla sicurezza della pace.  Poi per tutte quelle cose di cui qualcuno è stato spossessato senza un processo legale dei suoi pari, da parte di nostro padre re Enrico o di nostro fratello re Riccardo, e si trovi in nostro possesso o nelle mani di altri sotto la nostra garanzia, noi dovremo avere un termine comunemente concesso a chi è segnato della croce; eccetto quei casi in cui sia iniziato un processo o aperta un’inchiesta per nostro ordine, prima della sospensione per la nostra croce; al nostro ritorno dal pellegrinaggio o in caso di rinuncia al pellegrinaggio, immediatamente sarà resa piena giustizia.

MC.53

Eundem autem respectum habebimus et eodem modo de justicia exhibenda, de forestis deafforestandis vel remansuris forestis quas Henricus pater noster vel Ricardus frater noster afforestaverunt, et de custodiis terrarum que sunt de alieno feodo, cujusmodi custodias hucusque habuimus occasione feodi quod aliquis de nobis tenuit per servicium militare, et de abbaciis que fundate fuerint in feodo alterius quam nostro, in quibus dominus feodi dixerit se jus habere; et cum redierimus, vel si remanserimus a peregrinacione nostra, super hiis conquerentibus plenam justiciam statim exhibebimus. We shall have, moreover, the same respite and in the same manner in rendering justice concerning the disafforestation or retention of those forests which Henry our father and Richard our brother afforested, and concerning the wardship of lands which are of the fief of another (namely, such wardships as we have hitherto had by reason of a fief which anyone held of us by knight’s service), and concerning abbeys founded on other fiefs than our own, in which the lord of the fee claims to have right; and when we have returned, or if we desist from our expedition, we will immediately grant full justice to all who complain of such things. We shall have similar respite in rendering justice in connexion with forests that are to be disafforested, or to remain forests, when these were first afforested by our father Henry or our brother Richard; with the guardianship of lands in another person’s ‘fee’, when we have hitherto had this by virtue of a ‘fee’ held of us for knight’s service by a third party; and with abbeys founded in another person’s ‘fee’, in which the lord of the ‘fee’ claims to own a right.  On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once do full justice to complaints about these matters. Tendremos derecho a la misma moratoria en la administración de justicia relacionada con los bosques que hayan de ser talados o permanecer como tales, cuando estos hayan sido originariamente plantados por nuestro padre Enrique o nuestro hermano Ricardo; con la guardia de tierras que pertenezcan a “feudo” de un tercero, en el supuesto de que la hayamos ejercido hasta ahora en virtud de algún “feudo” concedido por Nos a un tercero a cambio de servicios de caballería, y con las abadías fundadas en “feudos” de terceros en las cuales el señor del “feudo” reivindique un derecho propio.  En estas materias haremos entera justicia a los recursos cuando regresemos de la Cruzada o inmediatamente si desistimos de ella. Nous aurons aussi les mêmes répits, et la même justice sera faite concernant le défrichage des forêts, qui sont encore à défricher, et que le Roi Henry Notre père ou Richard Notre frère avait planté; et, il en sera de même concernant la tenure des terres qui sont dans le fief d’un autre, et que Nous avions auparavant à cause de certains fiefs, que Nous avions à cause du service militaire qui nous était dû; et, aussi pour les abbayes fondées dans tout autre fief que le Notre, pour lesquelles le Seigneur du fief réclame un droit.  Nous rendrons immédiatement justice à tous ces plaidoyers, si Nous ne partons pas en mission, ou dès que Nous serons de retour. Avremo ugualmente una proroga (e lo stesso sarà nel rendere giustizia) per l’eliminazione del vincolo sulle foreste (o per la sua conservazione), qualora queste siano state afforestate (dichiarate foreste, cioè sottoposte a vincolo regio ndr) da nostro padre Enrico o da nostro fratello Riccardo, e per la custodia delle terre che si trovano nel feudo di un altro, la cui custodia abbiamo avuto fino ad ora a causa di un feudo tenuto per nostro conto da un terzo, in virtù del servizio di cavaliere; lo stesso sarà infine per le abbazie fondate nel feudo di altra persona da noi, qualora questa avanzi delle pretese su di esse; e al nostro ritorno, o nel caso di rinuncia al pellegrinaggio, noi concederemo piena giustizia a tutte le lagnanze riguardanti queste cose.

MC.54

Nullus capiatur nec imprisonetur propter appellum femine de morte alterius quam viri sui. No one shall be arrested or imprisoned upon the appeal of a woman, for the death of any other than her husband. No one shall be arrested or imprisoned on the appeal of a woman for the death of any person except her husband. Nadie será detenido o encarcelado por denuncia de una mujer por motivo de la muerte de persona alguna, salvo el mando de aquella. Aucun homme ne sera arrêté ou emprisonné pour la mort d’un autre à la demande d’une femme, sauf si cet homme est son mari. Nessuno sarà arrestato od imprigionato per la morte di una persona su accusa di una donna, a meno che la persona morta non sia il marito della donna.

MC.55

Omnes fines qui injuste et contra legem terre facti sunt nobiscum, et omnia amerciamenta facta injuste et contra legem terre, omnino condonentur, vel fiat inde perjudicium viginti quinque baronum de quibus fit mencio inferius in securitate pacis, vel per judicium majoris partis eorundem, una cum predicto Stephano Cantuariensi archiepiscopo si interesse poterit et aliis quos secum ad hoc vocare voluerit.  Et si interesse non poterit, nichilominus procedat negocium sine eo, ita quod, si aliquis vel aliqui de predictis viginti quinque baronibus fuerint in simili querela, amoveantur quantum ad hoc judicium et alii loco eorum per residuos de eisdem viginti quinque tantum ad hoc faciendum electi et jurati substituantur. All fines made with us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all amercements, imposed unjustly and against the law of the land, shall be entirely remitted, or else it shall be done concerning them according to the decision of the five and twenty barons whom mention is made below in the clause for securing the pease, or according to the judgment of the majority of the same, along with the aforesaid Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and such others as he may wish to bring with him for this purpose, and if he cannot be present the business shall nevertheless proceed without him, provided always that if any one or more of the aforesaid five and twenty barons are in a similar suit, they shall be removed as far as concerns this particular judgment, others being substituted in their places after having been selected by the rest of the same five and twenty for this purpose only, and after having been sworn. All fines that have been given to us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all fines that we have exacted unjustly, shall be entirely remitted or the matter decided by a majority judgement of the twenty-five barons referred to below in the clause for securing the peace together with Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and such others as he wishes to bring with him.  If the archbishop cannot be present, proceedings shall continue without him, provided that if any of the twenty-five barons has been involved in a similar suit himself, his judgement shall be set aside, and someone else chosen and sworn in his place, as a substitute for the single occasion, by the rest of the twenty-five. Todas las multas que se nos hayan pagado injustamente y contra la ley del reino, y todas las multas que hayamos impuesto sin razón, quedan totalmente remitidas o bien serán resueltas por sentencia mayoritaria de los veinticinco varones a que se refiere mas adelante la cláusula de salvaguardia de la paz, así como de Esteban, arzobispo de Canterbury, si pudiere asistir, y cuantos otros quiera el traer consigo.  Si el arzobispo no puede asistir, continuaran las actuaciones sin el, pero si uno cualquiera de los veinticinco barones fuere parte en el litigio, no se tendrá en cuenta su juicio y se elegirá y tomara juramento a otro en su lugar, como suplente para la materia en cuestión, por el resto de los veinticinco. Toutes les amendes qui ont été imposés injustement par Nous ou contrairement aux lois du pays, seront totalement restitués, ou tel que déterminé par le verdict des vingt-cinq Barons, qui sont mentionnés ci-dessous; eu égard pour la paix, ou par le verdict d’une majorité des Barons avec le susdit Stephen, Archevêque de Canterbury, s’il peut être présent, et avec d’autres qu’il pourrait penser approprié de prendre avec lui, et, s’il ne peut pas être présent, les affaires procéderont quand même sans lui ; mais si un ou plus des vingt-cinq Barons avaient un plaidoyer semblable, ils seront excusés pour ce procès, et d’autres seront élus et assermentés (seulement pour ce procès) par le reste des vingt-cinq pour les remplacer, Tutte le somme che ci sono state versate ingiustamente ed in contrasto con la legge del paese, e tutte le ammende da noi esatte indebitamente, saranno interamente restituite; ovvero saranno sottoposte al giudizio dei venticinque baroni cui si fa riferimento più sotto, nella clausola della sicurezza per la pace, o della maggioranza degli stessi, unitamente al predetto Stefano, arcivescovo di Canterbury, se sarà presente e di quanti altri egli vorrà condurre con sè.  E se non potrà essere presente, la riunione proseguirà senza di lui; se però uno dei venticinque baroni sarà implicato anche lui in una causa simile, il suo giudizio sarà escluso ed un altro sarà scelto come sostituto dai rimanenti venticinque eletti, dopo aver giurato.

MC.56

Si nos disseisivimus vel elongavimus Walenses de terris vel libertatibus vel rebus aliis, sine legali judicio parium suorum in Anglia vel in Wallia, eis statim reddantur; et si contencio super hoc orta fuerit, tunc inde fiat in Marchia per judicium parium suorum de tenementis Anglie secundum legem Anglie; de tenementis Wallie secundum legem Wallie; de tenementis Marchic secundum legem Marchie.  Idem facient Walenses nobis et nostris. If we have disseised or removed Welshmen from lands or liberties, or other things, without the legal judgment of their peers in England or in Wales, they shall be immediately restored to them; and if a dispute arise over this, then let it be decided in the marches by the judgment of their peers; for the tenements in England according to the law of England, for tenements in Wales according to the law of Wales, and for tenements in the marches according to the law of the marches.  Welshmen shall do the same to us and ours. If we have deprived or dispossessed any Welshmen of lands, liberties, or anything else in England or in Wales, without the lawful judgement of their equals, these are at once to be returned to them.  A dispute on this point shall be determined in the Marches by the judgement of equals.  English law shall apply to holdings of land in England, Welsh law to those in Wales, and the law of the Marches to those in the Marches.  The Welsh shall treat us and ours in the same way. En caso de que hayamos privado o desposeído a algún galés de tierras, libertades o cualquier otro bien en Inglaterra o en Gales, sin legitima sentencia de sus pares, aquellas le serán devueltas sin demora.  Todo litigio en la materia será dirimido en las Marcas mediante sentencia de los pares de la parte.  Se aplicara la ley inglesa a las tierras que se posean en Inglaterra, la ley galesa a las que posean en Gales y la de las Marcas a las que se posean en las Marcas.  Los galeses nos trataran a Nos y a los nuestros de la misma manera. Si Nous avons saisi ou dépossédé certains Gallois de leurs terres, de leurs libertés ou autres droits sans le juste verdict de leurs pairs, en Angleterre ou au pays de Galles, ceci leur sera immédiatement restitué; et s’il y a dispute avec Nous ceci sera déterminé dans les Marais par le verdict de leurs pairs, pour une tenure d’Angleterre d’après la loi d’Angleterre, pour une tenure de Galles d’après la loi de Galles, pour une tenure des Marais d’après la loi des Marais.  Les Gallois feront de même pour Nous et Nos sujets. Se un Gallese sarà stato da noi privato delle terre, della libertà o qualsiasi altra cosa (in Inghilterra o nel Galles) senza il legale giudizio dei suoi pari, dovrà immediatamente riavere in restituzione quanto perduto: e se la questione dovesse essere controversa, sarà decisa nella Marchia dal giudizio dei suoi pari: per i possedimenti in Inghilterra, secondo la legge dell’Inghilterra per i possedimenti che si trovano nel Galles con la legge del Galles: per i possedimenti della Marchia, secondo la legge della Marchia.  Lo stesso facciano i Gallesi con noi e i nostri sudditi.

MC.57

De omnibus autem illis de quibus aliquis Walensium disseisitus fuerit vel elongatus, sine legali judicio parium suorum, per Henricum regem patrem nostrum vel Ricardum regem fratrem nostrum, que nos in manu nostra habemus, vel que alii tenent que nos oporteat warantizare, respectum habebimus usque ad communem terminum crucesignatorum, illis exceptis de quibus placitum motum fuit vel inquisicio facta per preceptum nostrum ante suscepcionem crucis nostre; cum autem redierimus, vel si forte remanscrimus a peregrinatione nostra, statim eis inde plenam justitiam exhibebimus, secundum leges Walensium et partes predictas. Further, for all those possessions from which any Welshman has, without the lawful judgment of his peers, been disseised or removed by King Henry our father, or King Richard our brother, and which we retain in our hand (or which are possessed by others, and which we ought to warrant), we will have respite until the usual term of crusaders; excepting those things about which a plea has been raised or an inquest made by our order before we took the cross; but as soon as we return (or if perchance we desist from our expedition), we will immediately grant full justice in accordance with the laws of the Welsh and in relation to the foresaid regions. In cases where a Welshman was deprived or dispossessed of anything, without the lawful judgement of his equals, by our father King Henry or our brother King Richard, and it remains in our hands or is held by others under our warranty, we shall have respite for the period commonly allowed to Crusaders, unless a lawsuit had been begun, or an enquiry had been made at our order, before we took the Cross as a Crusader.  But on our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once do full justice according to the laws of Wales and the said regions. En caso de que un galés haya sido privado o desposeído de algo, sin haber mediado legitima sentencia de sus pares, por nuestro padre el Rey Enrique o nuestro hermano el Rey Ricardo y el bien en cuestión permanezca en nuestro poder o este en posesión de terceros por concesión nuestra, tendremos moratoria por el lapso generalmente reconocido a los Cruzados, a menos que estuviese ya pendiente algún litigio judicial o se hubiese entablado una indagación por orden nuestra, antes de tomar Nos la Cruz como Cruzado, pero a nuestro regreso de la Cruzada o de modo inmediato si desistimos de ella, haremos plenamente justicia con arreglo a las leyes de Gales y de dichas regiones. En plus, tous ces biens qui auraient été saisis ou dérobés d’un Gallois sans le verdict légal de ses pairs par le Roi Henry Notre père ou le Roi Richard Notre frère, et que Nous avons en notre possession, ou que d’autres détiennent par mandat, Nous aurons répit des susdits jusqu’au terme de la croisade, excepté pour ceux pour lesquels un plaidoyer avait été intenté ou qu’une enquête avait été faite par Notre Précepte avant la prise Notre Croix.  Mais, aussitôt que Nous serons de retour de Notre mission, ou si, par hasard, Nous n’irions pas en mission, Nous accorderons immédiatement justice aux susdites causes d’après les lois de Galles. Nel caso in cui un Gallese sia stato privato di qualcosa senza il giudizio legale dei suoi pari, da parte di nostro padre re Enrico o nostro fratello re Riccardo, e si trovi in nostro possesso o nelle mani di persone sotto la nostra garanzia, noi dovremo avere una proroga della durata usualmente concessa ai segnati della croce a meno che un processo non abbia avuto inizio od una inchiesta non sia stata aperta per nostro ordine, prima che noi prendessimo la croce; al nostro ritorno, ovvero all’atto della rinuncia al nostro pellegrinaggio, renderemo immediatamente piena giustizia secondo le leggi del Galles e delle regioni suddette.

MC.58

Nos reddemus filium Lewelini statim, et omnes obsides de Wallia, et cartas que nobis liberate fuerunt in securitatem pacis. We will immediately give up the son of Llywelyn and all the hostages of Wales, and the charters delivered to us as security for the peace. We will at once return the son of Llywelyn, all Welsh hostages, and the charters delivered to us as security for the peace. Devolveremos en seguida al hijo de Llyvelyn, a todos los rehenes galeses y las cartas que se nos hayan entregado en garantía de la paz. Nous libérerons immédiatement le fils de Llewelin, et tous les otages de Galles, et Nous les libérerons aussi des engagements qu’ils ont pris avec Nous, eu égard pour la paix. Restituiremo immediatamente il figlio di Llewelyn, gli ostaggi gallesi e tutte i documenti che ci sono stati dati come pegni per la pace.

MC.59

Nos faciemus Alexandro regi Scottorum de sororibus suis et obsidibus reddendis, et libertatibus suis, et jure suo, secundum formam in qua faciemus aliis baronibus nostris Anglie, nisi aliter esse debeat per cartas quas habemus de Willelmo patre ipsius, quondam rege Scottorum; et hoc erit per judicium parium suorum in curia nostra. We will do towards Alexander, king of Scots, concerning the return of his sisters and his hostages, and concerning his franchises, and his right, in the same manner as we shall do towards our owher barons of England, unless it ought to be otherwise according to the charters which we hold from William his father, formerly king of Scots; and this shall be according to the judgment of his peers in our court. With regard to the return of the sisters and hostages of Alexander, king of Scotland, his liberties and his rights, we will treat him in the same way as our other barons of England, unless it appears from the charters that we hold from his father William, formerly king of Scotland, that he should be treated otherwise.  This matter shall be resolved by the judgement of his equals in our court. Respecto a la devolución de las hermanas y rehenes de Alejandro, Rey de Escocia, y de los derechos y libertades de este, le trataremos del mismo modo que nuestros demás barones de Inglaterra, a menos que resulte de las cartas que nos concedió su padre Guillermo, anteriormente Rey de Escocia, que deba ser tratado de otro modo.  Esta materia será dirimida por el juicio de sus pares en nuestro tribunal. Nous ferons de même pour Alexander Roi d’Ecosse, concernant la libération de ses soeurs et des otages, et la restitution de ses droits et libertés, et Nous le traiterons de la même façon que Nous traitons Nos autres Barons en Angleterre, à moins que les chartes que Nous avons de son père William, le précédent Roi d’écosse, Nous en engagent autrement ; et ceci sera déterminé d’après le verdict de ses pairs à Notre Cour. Noi faremo ad Alessandro, re di Scozia, per quel che riguarda la restituzione delle sorelle e degli ostaggi e le sue libertà ed i suoi diritti, nello stesso modo che verso gli altri nostri baroni d’Inghilterra, a meno che, dai documenti che ricevemmo da suo padre Guglielmo, già re di Scozia, non risulti che egli debba essere trattato diversamente; e ciò sarà stabilito dal giudizio dei suoi pari nella nostra corte.

MC.60

Omnes autem istas consuetudines predictas et libertates quas nos concessimus in regno nostro tenendas quantum ad nos pertinet erga nostros, omnes de regno nostro, tam clerici quam laici, observent quantum ad se pertinet erga suos. Moreover, all these aforesaid customs and liberties, the observances of which we have granted in our kingdom as far as pertains to us towards our men, shall be observed by all of our kingdom, as well clergy as laymen, as far as pertains to them towards their men. All these customs and liberties that we have granted shall be observed in our kingdom in so far as concerns our own relations with our subjects.  Let all men of our kingdom, whether clergy or laymen, observe them similarly in their relations with their own men. Todas las franquicias y libertades que hemos otorgado serán observadas en nuestro reino en cuanto se refiera a nuestras relaciones con nuestros súbditos.  Que todos los hombres de nuestro reino, sean clérigos o legos, las observen de modo semejante en sus relaciones con sus propios vasallos. Par conséquent, l’observance de ces susdites coutumes et libertés, que Nous avons accordées dans Notre Royaume, et qui Nous engagent envers nos sujets, seront aussi observées par tout Notre Royaume, autant par les ecclésiastiques que par les laïques en ce qui concerne leurs sujets. Tutte le consuetudini e le libertà suddette che abbiamo concesse nel nostro regno, e per quanto ci compete, siano osservate da tutti gli uomini del nostro regno, siano ecclesiastici o laici; le osservino, per quanto ad essi compete, nei confronti di coloro ad essi soggetti.

MC.61

Cum autem pro Deo, et ad emendacionem regni nostri, et ad melius sopiendum discordiam inter nos et barones nostros ortam, hec omnia predicta concesserimus, volentes ea integra et firma stabilitate in perpetuum gaudere, facimus et concedimus eis securitatem subscriptam; Since, moreover, for God and the amendment of our kingdom and for the better allaying of the quarrel that has arisen between us and our barons, we have granted all these concessions, desirous that they should enjoy them in complete and firm endurance forever, we give and grant to them the underwritten security, SINCE WE HAVE GRANTED ALL THESE THINGS for God, for the better ordering of our kingdom, and to allay the discord that has arisen between us and our barons, and since we desire that they shall be enjoyed in their entirety, with lasting strength, for ever, we give and grant to the barons the following security: Por cuanto hemos otorgado todo lo que antecede por Dios, por la mejor gobernación de nuestro Reino y para aliviar la discordia que ha surgido entre Nos y nuestros barones, y por cuanto deseamos que esto sea disfrutado en su integridad, con vigor para siempre, damos y otorgamos a los barones la garantía siguiente: Puisque Nous avons accordé tous les susdits droits et libertés pour Dieu et pour la réforme de Notre Royaume, et pour mieux éteindre la discorde qui est survenue entre Nous et Nos Barons.  Nous, étant désireux, que ces susdits droits et libertés possèdent une stabilité inébranlable pour toujours, leurs donnons et leurs accordons les garanties inscrites ci-dessous. Poiché noi abbiamo fatto tutte queste concessioni per Dio, per un miglior ordinamento del nostro regno e per sanare la discordia sorta tra noi ed i nostri baroni, e poiché noi desideriamo che esse siano integralmente e fermamente (in perpetuo) godute, diamo e concediamo le seguenti garanzie:
videlicet quod barones eligant viginti quinque barones de regno quos voluerint, qui debeant pro totis viribus suis observare, tenere, et facere observari, pacem et libertates quas cis concessimus, et hac presenti carta nostra confirmavimus; ita scilicet quod, si nos, vel justiciarius noster, vel ballivi nostri, vel aliquis de ministris nostris, in aliquo erga aliquem deliquerimus, vel aliquem articulorum pacis aut securitatis transgressi fuerimus, et delictum ostensum fuerit quatuor baronibus de predictis viginti quinque baronibus, illi quatuor barones accedant ad nos vel ad justiciarium nostrum, si fuerimus extra regnum, proponentes nobis excessum, petent ut excessum illum sine dilacione faciamus emendari. namely, that the barons choose five and twenty barons of the kingdom, whomsoever they will, who shall be bound with all their might, to observe and hold, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties we have granted and confirmed to them by this our present Charter, so that if we, or our justiciar, or our bailiffs or any one of our officers, shall in anything be at fault towards anyone, or shall have broken any one of the articles of this peace or of this security, and the offense be notified to four barons of the foresaid five and twenty, the said four barons shall repair to us (or our justiciar, if we are out of the realm) and, laying the transgression before us, petition to have that transgression redressed without delay. The barons shall elect twenty-five of their number to keep, and cause to be observed with all their might, the peace and liberties granted and confirmed to them by this charter.  If we, our chief justice, our officials, or any of our servants offend in any respect against any man, or transgress any of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offence is made known to four of the said twenty-five barons, they shall come to us—or in our absence from the kingdom to the chief justice—to declare it and claim immediate redress. Los barones elegirán a veinticinco entre ellos para que guarden y hagan cumplir con todo el poder que tengan, la paz y las libertades otorgadas y confirmadas para ellos por la presente Carta.  Si Nos, nuestro Justicia Mayor, nuestros agentes o cualquiera de nuestros bailios cometiese algún delito contra un hombre o violase alguno de los artículos de paz o de la presente garantía, y se comunicase el delito a cuatro de los citados veinticinco barones, los informados vendrán ante Nos (o en ausencia nuestra del reino, ante el Justicia Mayor) para denunciarlo y solicitar reparación inmediata. C’est-à-dire que, les Barons pourront élire vingt-cinq Barons de leurs choix et de leur Royaume, et ceux-ci observerons, garderons et ferons observer, de leur plein pouvoir, la paix et les libertés que Nous leurs avons accordées.  Et Nous avons confirmé les susdits par Notre présente charte, de la façon suivante, c’est-à-dire, si Nous, Notre Juge, Nos Huissiers ou certains de Nos Officiers, portent outrage à quiconque de quelque façon ou qu’ils violent certains des articles de la paix ou de la sécurité, et que l’offense est constaté par quatre des susdits vingt-cinq Barons, ces quatre Barons viendrons à Nous, ou Notre Juge si Nous sommes à l’extérieur du Royaume, et Nous faisant part des abus commis, Nous demanderont que réparation soit faite sans délai. I baroni eleggano venticinque baroni del regno che desiderano, allo scopo di osservare mantenere e far osservare con tutte le loro forze, la pace e le libertà che ad essi abbaiamo concesso e che confermiamo con questa nostra carta.  Se noi, il nostro primo giudice, i nostri ufficiali o qualunque altro dei nostri funzionari offenderemo in qualsiasi modo un uomo o trasgrediremo alcuno dei presenti articoli della pace e della sicurezza, e il reato viene portato a conoscenza di quattro dei venticinque baroni suddetti, costoro si presenteranno di fronte a noi o se saremo fuori dal regno, al nostro primo giudice, per denunciare il misfatto e senza indugi procederemo alla riparazione.
Et si nos excessum non emendaverimus, vel, si fuerimus extra regnum, justiciarius noster non emendaverit infra tempus quadraginta dierum computandum a tempore quo monstratum fuerit nobis vel justiciario nostro, si extra regnum fuerimus, predicti quatuor barones referant causam illam ad residuos de illis viginti quinque baronibus, et illi viginti quinque barones cum communa tocius terre distringent et gravabunt nos modis omnibus quibus poterunt, scilicet per capcionem castrorum, terrarum, possessionum et aliis modis quibus poterunt, donec fuerit emendatum secundum arbitrium eorum, salva persona nostra et regine nostre et liberorum nostrorum; et cum fuerit emendatum intendent nobis sicut prius fecerunt. And if we shall not have corrected the transgression (or, in the event of our being out of the realm, if our justiciar shall not have corrected it) within forty days, reckoning from the time it has been intimated to us (or to our justiciar, if we should be out of the realm), the four barons aforesaid shall refer that matter to the rest of the five and twenty barons, and those five and twenty barons shall, together with the community of the whole realm, distrain and distress us in all possible ways, namely, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, and in any other way they can, until redress has been obtained as they deem fit, saving harmless our own person, and the persons of our queen and children; and when redress has been obtained, they shall resume their old relations towards us. If we, or in our absence abroad the chief justice, make no redress within forty days, reckoning from the day on which the offence was declared to us or to him, the four barons shall refer the matter to the rest of the twenty-five barons, who may distrain upon and assail us in every way possible, with the support of the whole community of the land, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, or anything else saving only our own person and those of the queen and our children, until they have secured such redress as they have determined upon.  Having secured the redress, they may then resume their normal obedience to us. Si Nos, o en nuestra ausencia del Reino el Justicia Mayor, no diéramos reparación dentro de los cuarenta días siguientes, contados desde aquel en que el delito haya sido denunciado a Nos o a el.  Los cuatro barones darán traslado del caso al resto de los veinticinco, los cuales podrán usar de apremio contra Nos y atacarnos de cualquier modo, con el apoyo de toda la comunidad del Reino, apoderándose de nuestros castillos, tierras, posesiones o cualquier otro bien, excepto nuestra propia persona y las de la reina y nuestros hijos, hasta que consigan efectivamente la reparación que hayan decretado.  Una vez obtenida satisfacción, podrán volver a someterse a la normal obediencia a Nos. Et si Nous n’avons pas fait réparation pour l’abus, ou que Nous sommes à l’extérieur du Royaume, et que Notre Juge n’a pas fait réparation en dedans de quarante jours, depuis le temps que Nous ou Notre Juge ont été informés de l’abus, les susdits quatre Barons présenteront la cause devant le reste des vingt-cinq Barons, et eux avec les vingt-cinq Barons et le peuple, Nous affligerons et Nous harcèlerons par tous les moyens à leur disposition.  C’est-à-dire, en saisissant nos châteaux, nos terres et nos possessions, ou par tout autres moyens en leur pouvoir, jusqu’à ce que l’abus soit réparé conformément à leur verdict, sauf outrage à Notre personne et les personnes de Notre Reine et de Nos enfants.  Après la correction de l’abus, ils Nous traiteront comme avant. E se noi o, in nostra assenza, il nostro primo giudice non faremo tale riparazione entro quaranta giorni dal giorno in cui il misfatto sia stato dichiarato a noi od a lui, i quattro baroni metteranno al corrente della questione il rimanente dei venticinque che potranno fare sequestri ai nostri danni ed attaccarci in qualsiasi altro modo e secondo il loro arbitrio, insieme alla popolazione del regno, impadronendosi dei nostri castelli, delle nostre terre, dei nostri beni o di qualsiasi altra cosa, eccettuate la nostra persona, quella della regina e dei nostri figli; e quando avranno ottenuto la riparazione, ci obbediranno come prima.
Et quicumque voluerit de terra juret quod ad predicta omnia exequenda parebit mandatis predictorum viginti quinque baronum, et quod gravabit nos pro posse suo cum ipsis, et nos publice et libere damus licenciam jurandi cuilibet qui jurare voluerit, et nulli umquam jurare prohibebimus.  Omnes autem illos de terra qui per se et sponte sua noluerint jurare viginti quinque baronibus de distringendo et gravando nos cum eis, faciemus jurare eosdem de mandato nostro sicut predictum est. And let whoever in the country desires it, swear to obey the orders of the said five and twenty barons for the execution of all the aforesaid matters, and along with them, to molest us to the utmost of his power; and we publicly and freely grant leave to everyone who wishes to swear, and we shall never forbid anyone to swear.  All those, moveover, in the land who of themselves and of their own accord are unwilling to swear to the twenty five to help them in constraining and molesting us, we shall by our command compel the same to swear to the effect foresaid. Any man who so desires may take an oath to obey the commands of the twenty-five barons for the achievement of these ends, and to join with them in assailing us to the utmost of his power.  We give public and free permission to take this oath to any man who so desires, and at no time will we prohibit any man from taking it.  Indeed, we will compel any of our subjects who are unwilling to take it to swear it at our command. Todo hombre que lo desee podrá prestar juramento de obedecer las ordenes de los veinticinco barones para la consecución de estos fines y de unirse a ellos para acometernos en toda la medida de su poder.  Damos permiso solemne e irrestricto de prestar dicho juramento a cualquier hombre que así lo desee y en ningún momento prohibiremos a nadie que lo preste; mas aun, obligaremos a cualquiera de nuestros súbditos que no quiera prestarlo a que lo preste por orden nuestra. Et quiconque de notre pays, qui le désire, peut jurer d’obéir aux susdits vingt-cinq Barons pour l’exécution de ces susdits devoirs et qu’avec eux ils Nous affligeront du mieux qu’ils le peuvent.  Et nous donnons, volontairement et publiquement, la permission à tous et chacun, qui le désire, de jurer ainsi.  Nous n’interdirons jamais à personne de faire ce serment.  Mais Nous obligerons par nos ordres tous ceux de notre pays, qui ne voudront pas faire librement le serment aux vingt-cinq Barons, de nous affliger et de nous harceler avec eux tel que susdit. E chiunque nel regno lo voglia può di sua spontanea volontà giurare di obbedire agli ordini dei predetti venticinque baroni per il conseguimento dei suddetti scopi, e di unirsi a loro contro di noi, e noi diamo pubblicamente e liberamente autorizzazione di dare questo giuramento a chiunque lo voglia e non proibiremo a nessuno di pronunciarlo.  Tutti coloro del paese che per se stessi e di loro spontanea volontà non vogliano prestare giuramento ai venticinque baroni per danneggiarci o molestarci insieme a loro, li costringeremo a giurare per nostro ordine, come sopra è stato detto.
Et si aliquis de viginti quinque baronibus decesserit, vel a terra recesserit, vel aliquo alio modo impeditus fuerit, quominus ista predicta possent exequi, qui residui fuerint de predictis viginti quinque baronibus eligant alium loco ipsius, pro arbitrio suo, qui simili modo erit juratus quo et ceteri. And if any one of the five and twenty barons shall have died or departed from the land, or be incapacitated in any other manner which would prevent the foresaid provisions being carried out, those of the said twenty five barons who are left shall choose another in his place according to their own judgment, and he shall be sworn in the same way as the others. If one of the twenty-five barons dies or leaves the country, or is prevented in any other way from discharging his duties, the rest of them shall choose another baron in his place, at their discretion, who shall be duly sworn in as they were. Si alguno de los veinticinco barones muere o abandona el país o se ve impedido por otra razón de ejercitar sus funciones, los restantes elegirán a otro barón en su lugar, según su libre arbitrio, y el elegido prestara el mismo juramento que los demás. Et si certains des Vingt-cinq Barons devait décéder, sortir du pays, ou être empêché de quelque façon d’accomplir les susdits devoirs, le reste des vingt-cinq Barons, à leur loisir, en éliront un autre à sa place, et il sera assermenté de la même façon que les autres. E se qualcuno dei venticinque baroni morisse od abbandonasse il paese o fosse impedito in qualunque altro modo dall’adempiere le proprie funzioni, gli altri dovranno eleggere dai predetti venticinque un altro al suo posto, a loro discrezione, e questi dovrà a sua volta prestare giuramento allo stesso modo degli altri.
In omnibus autem que istis viginti quinque baronibus committuntur exequenda, si forte ipsi viginti quinque presentes fuerint, et inter se super re aliqua discordaverint, vel aliqui ex eis summoniti nolint vel nequeant interesse, ratum habeatur et firmum quod major pars eorum qui presentes fuerint providerit vel preceperit ac si omnes viginti quinque in hoc consensissent; Further, in all matters, the execution of which is entrusted, to these twenty five barons, if perchance these twenty five are present and disagree about anything, or if some of them, after being summoned, are unwilling or unable to be present, that which the majority of those present ordain or command shall be held as fixed and established, exactly as if the whole twenty five had concurred in this; In the event of disagreement among the twenty-five barons on any matter referred to them for decision, the verdict of the majority present shall have the same validity as a unanimous verdict of the whole twenty-five, whether these were all present or some of those summoned were unwilling or unable to appear. En caso de discrepancia entre los veinticinco barones sobre cualquier asunto que se haya sometido a su decisión, el juicio de la mayoría presente tendrá la misma validez que un pronunciamiento unánime de los veinticinco, tanto si estos estuviesen todos presentes como si alguno de los convocados estuviera impedido de comparecer o no hubiera querido hacerlo. Concernant les devoirs pour lesquels ces vingt-cinq Barons ont été nommés : si les vingt-cinq Barons, qui sont présents pour une cause, avaient des différences d’opinion au sujet d’une cause quelconque, ou si certains de ceux qui ont été convoqués, ne voulaient pas ou ne pouvaient pas être présents, ce que la majorité de ceux qui sont présents, détermineront et décréteront, sera aussi ferme et valable que si tous les vingt-cinq avaient été d’accord. In tutti gli adempimenti di questi venticinque baroni, se dovesse accadere che i venticinque siano presenti e tra di loro siano in disaccordo su qualcosa o uno di loro che è stato convocato non vuole o non può venire, ciò che la maggioranza dei presenti avrà deciso o ordinato, sarà come se avessero acconsentito tutti i venticinque;
et predicti viginti quinque jurent quod omnia antedicta fideliter observabunt, et pro toto posse suo facient observari. and the said twenty five shall swear that they will faithfully observe all that is aforesaid, and cause it to be observed with all their might. The twenty-five barons shall swear to obey all the above articles faithfully, and shall cause them to be obeyed by others to the best of their power. Los veinticinco barones juraran obediencia fiel a los artículos anteriores y harán que sean cumplidos por los demás en la medida del poder que tengan. Et les susdits vingt-cinq Barons jureront d’observer et de faire observer fidèlement de tous leurs pouvoirs tous les susdits devoirs. e i suddetti venticinque giurino di osservare fedelmente tutte le cose suddette e di fare tutto ciò che è loro possibile per farle osservare.
Et nos nichil impetrabimus ab aliquo, per nos nec per alium, per quod aliqua istarum concessionum et libertatum revocetur vel minuatur; et, si aliquid tale impetratum fuerit, irritum sit et inane et numquam eo utemur per nos nec per alium. And we shall procure nothing from anyone, directly or indirectly, whereby any part of these concessions and liberties might be revoked or diminished; and if any such things has been procured, let it be void and null, and we shall never use it personally or by another. We will not seek to procure from anyone, either by our own efforts or those of a third party, anything by which any part of these concessions or liberties might be revoked or diminished.  Should such a thing be procured, it shall be null and void and we will at no time make use of it, either ourselves or through a third party. No intentaremos conseguir de nadie, ya por acción nuestra ya por medio de terceros, cosa alguna por la cual una parte de estas concesiones o libertades pueda quedar revocada o mermada.  Si se consiguiese semejante cosa, se tendrá por nula y sin efecto y no haremos uso de ella en ningún momento, ni personalmente ni a través de terceros. Et Nous n’obtiendrons rien de quiconque, par Nous même, ni par l’intermédiaire d’un autre, quoique ce soit qui pourrait révoquer ou abroger ces droits et libertés.  Et si telle révocation ou abrogation était procurée, elle serait invalide et nul.  Et ne Nous en servirions jamais ni par Nous même, ni par l’intermédiaire d’un autre. E noi non chiederemo nulla, per noi o per altri, perché alcuna parte di queste concessioni o libertà sia revocata o ridotta; e se qualcosa sarà richiesta, sarà considerata nulla e invalida e noi non potremo usarla per noi o tramite altri.

MC.62

Et omnes malas voluntates, indignaciones, et rancores, ortos inter nos et homines nostros, clericos et laicos, a tempore discordie, plene omnibus remisimus et condonavimus.  Preterea omnes transgressiones factas occasione ejusdem discordie, a Pascha anno regni nostri sextodecimo usque ad pacem reformatam, plene remisimus omnibus, clericis et laicis, et quantum ad nos pertinet plene condonavimus.  Et insuper fecimus eis fieri litteras testimoniales patentes domini Stephani Cantuariensis archiepiscopi, domini Henrici Dublinensis archiepiscopi, et episcoporum predictorum et magistri Pandulfi, super securitate ista et concessionibus prefatis. And all the will, hatreds, and bitterness that have arisen between us and our men, clergy and lay, from the date of the quarrel, we have completely remitted and pardoned to everyone.  Moreover, all trespasses occasioned by the said quarrel, from Easter in the sixteenth year of our reign till the restoration of peace, we have fully remitted to all, both clergy and laymen, and completely forgiven, as far as pertains to us.  And on this head, we have caused to be made for them letters testimonial patent of the lord Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, of the lord Henry, archbishop of Dublin, of the bishops aforesaid, and of Master Pandulf as touching this security and the concessions aforesaid.

We have remitted and pardoned fully to all men any ill-will, hurt, or grudges that have arisen between us and our subjects, whether clergy or laymen, since the beginning of the dispute.  We have in addition remitted fully, and for our own part have also pardoned, to all clergy and laymen any offences committed as a result of the said dispute between Easter in the sixteenth year of our reign (i.e. 1215) and the restoration of peace.

In addition we have caused letters patent to be made for the barons, bearing witness to this security and to the concessions set out above, over the seals of Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, Henry archbishop of Dublin, the other bishops named above, and Master Pandulf.

Hemos condonado y perdonado por completo a todos cualquier intención torticera, daño y agravio que haya podido surgir entre Nos y nuestros súbditos, ya sean clérigos o legos, desde el comienzo de la disputa.  Además, hemos remitido totalmente, y por nuestra parte hemos perdonado también, a cualesquiera clérigos y legos todos los delitos cometidos como consecuencia de la citada disputa entre la Pascua del decimosexto año de nuestro reinado y la restauración de la paz.

Hemos ordenado asimismo cursar cartas patentes para los barones en testimonio de la presente garantía y de las concesiones indicadas anteriormente, con los sellos de Esteban, arzobispo de Canterbury; Enrique, arzobispo de Dublin, los demás obispos arriba mencionados y el Maestro Pandolfo.

Nous avons pleinement restitué et pardonné à tous les hommes la mauvaise volonté, la rancoeur et les ressentiments, qui ont surgis entre Nous et Nos sujets, le clergé et les laïques, depuis le début de cette discorde.  De plus, toutes les infractions qui Nous concernent et qui ont été occasionnées par ladite discorde, par le clergé ou les laïques, depuis Pâques durant la seizième année de Notre règne jusqu’à la conclusion de la paix, ont entièrement été pardonnées.  Et, de plus, Nous avons fait faire des lettres patentes pour le Seigneur Stephen, Archevêque de Canterbury, le Seigneur Henry, Archevêque de Dublin, et aux susdits Evêques, et à Maître Pandulph en témoignage de ces garanties et de ces susdites concessions. E ogni malanimo, indignazione e rancore sorti tra noi ed i nostri sudditi, religiosi e laici, dall’inizio della discordia abbiamo a tutti pienamente rimesso e perdonato.  Inoltre, tutte le trasgressioni arrecate in occasione della detta discordia, tra la Pasqua del sedicesimo anno del nostro regno, alla restaurazione della pace, a religiosi e laici, per quanto ci compete, abbiamo pienamente condonato.  Inoltre abbiamo fatto fare per essi delle 1ettere patenti per testimonianza, del signore Stefano, arcivescovo di Canterbury, del signore Enrico, arcivescovo di Dublino, dei predetti vescovi e maestro Pandolfo, per la sicurezza di questa e delle concessioni predette.

MC.63

Quare volumus et firmiter precipimus quod Anglicana ecclesia libera sit et quod homines in regno nostro habeant et teneant omnes prefatas libertates, Jura, et concessiones, bene et in pace, libere et quiete, plene et integre, sibi et heredibus suis, de nobis et heredibus nostris, in omnibus rebus et locis, in perpetuum, sicut predictum est. Wherefore we will and firmly order that the English Church be free, and that the men in our kingdom have and hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights, and concessions, well and peaceably, freely and quietly, fully and wholly, for themselves and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all respects and in all places forever, as is aforesaid. IT IS ACCORDINGLY OUR WISH AND COMMAND that the English Church shall be free, and that men in our kingdom shall have and keep all these liberties, rights, and concessions, well and peaceably in their fullness and entirety for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all things and all places for ever. En consecuencia, es nuestro real deseo y nuestra real orden que la Iglesia de Inglaterra sea libre y que todos los hombres en nuestro Reino tengan y guarden todas estas libertades, derechos y concesiones legítima y pacíficamente en su totalidad e integridad para sí mismos y para sus herederos, en cualesquiera asuntos y lugares y para siempre. Par conséquent, il est de Notre volonté et Nous ordonnons fermement que l’Eglise d’Angleterre soit libre et que les hommes de Notre Royaume aient et gardent les susdites libertés, droits et concessions, en paix librement, paisiblement, et entièrement, à eux et à leurs héritiers, de Nous et de nos héritiers, en tous lieu et occasion, à perpétuité, tel que susdit. Per queste ragioni desideriamo e fermamente ordiniamo che la Chiesa d’Inghilterra sia libera e che i nostri sudditi abbiano e conservino tutte le predette libertà, diritti e concessioni, bene e pacificamente, liberamente e quietamente, pienamente e integralmente per se stessi e per i loro eredi, da noi e dai nostri eredi, in ogni cosa e luogo, in perpetuo, come è stato detto sopra.

Juratum est autem tam ex parte nostra quam ex parte baronum, quod hec omnia supradicta bona fide et sine malo ingenio observabuntur.  Testibus supradictis et multis aliis.

An oath, moreover, has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the barons, that all these conditions aforesaid shall be kept in good faith and without evil intent. Both we and the barons have sworn that all this shall be observed in good faith and without deceit.  Witness the above-mentioned people and many others. Tanto Nos como los barones hemos jurado que todo esto se observara de buena fe y sin engaño alguno, de lo cual son testigos las personas antedichas y muchas otras. Il est aussi juré de Notre part et de la part des Barons que toutes les susdites conditions seront observées de bonne foi, et sans mauvaises intentions. Abbiamo giurato, sia da parte nostra sia da parte dei baroni, che tutto ciò che abbiamo detto sopra in buona fede e senza cattive intenzioni sarà osservato in buona fede e senza inganno.  Ne sono testimoni le summenzionate persone e molti altri.

MC.Date

Data per manum nostram in prato quod vocatur Ronimed inter Windlesoram et Stanes, quinto dccimo die Junii, anno regni nostri decimo septimo.

Given under our hand—the above named and many others being witnesses—in the meadow which is called Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, on the fifteenth day of June, in the seventeenth year of our reign. Given by our hand in the meadow that is called Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign (i.e. 1215: the new regnal year began on 28 May). Dado de nuestro puño y letra en el prado que se llama Runnymede, entre Windsor y Staines, el día decimoquinto del mes de junio del decimoséptimo año de nuestro reinado. Donné de Notre main, en présence des susdits témoins et plusieurs autres, dans la Prairie de Runnymede, entre Windsor et Staines, le quinzième jour de juin, durant la dix-septième année de Notre règne. Dato per nostra mano nel prato chiamato Runnymede, tra Windsor e Staines, il quindicesimo giorno di Giugno, diciassettesimo anno del nostro regno.